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Flashcards in Renal/GU Deck (34):
1

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) a/w abnormal H+ secretion and nephrolithiasis

Type I (distal) RTA

2

RTA a/w abn HCO3- and rickets

Type II (proximal) RTA

3

RTA a/w aldosterone defect

Type IV (distal) RTA

4

"Doughy" skin

Hypernatremia

5

Differential of hypervolemic hyponatremia

Cirrhosis, CHF, nephritic syndrome

6

Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs

Hypocalcemia

7

MCC of hypercalcemia

Malignancy and hyperparathyroidism

8

T-wave flattening and U waves

Hypokalemia

9

Peaked T waves and widened QRS

Hyperkalemia

10

First-line tx for moderate hypercalcemia

IV hydration and loop diuretics (furosemide)

11

Type of ARF in a pt with FeNa

Prerenal

12

49 y/o man presents w/ acute-onset flank pain and hematuria

Nephrolithiasis

13

Most common type of nephrolithiasis

Calcium oxalate

14

20 y/o man presents w/ a palpable flank mass and hematuria. U/S shows bilateral enlarged kidneys w/ cysts. Associated brain anomaly?

Cerebral berry aneurysms (autosomal dominant PCKD)

15

Hematuria, htn, and oliguria

Nephritic syndrome

16

Proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipiduria, and edema

Nephrotic syndrome

17

Most common form of nephrotic syndrome

Membranous glomerulonephritis

18

Most common form of glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy (Berger's dz)

19

Glomerulonephritis w/ deafness

Alport's syndrome

20

Glomerulonephritis w/ hemoptysis

Wegener's granulomatosis and Goodpasture's syndrome

21

Presence of red cell casts in urine sediment

Glomerulonephritis/nephritic syndrome

22

Eosinophils in urine sediment

Allergic interstitial nephritis

23

Waxy casts in urine sediment and Maltese crosses (seen w/ lipiduria)

Nephrotic syndrome

24

Drowsiness, asterixis, nausea, and a pericardial friction rub

Uremic syndrome seen in pts w/ renal failure

25

55 y/o man is dx w/ prostate ca. Tx options?

Wait, surgical resection, radiation, and/or androgen suppression

26

Low urine specific gravity in the presence of high serum osmolality

Diabetes insipidus

27

Tx of SIADH

Fluid restriction, demeclocycline

28

Hematuria, flank pain, and palpable flank mass

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

29

Testicular cancer a/w B-hCG

Choriocarcinoma

30

Most common type of testicular cancer

Seminoma, a type of germ cell tumor

31

Most common histology of bladder cancer

Transitional cell carcinoma

32

Complication of overly rapid correction of hyponatremia

Central pontine myelinolysis

33

Salicylate ingestion causes what type of acid-base disorder?

Anion gap acidosis and 1` respiratory alkalosis due to central respiratory stimulation

34

Acid-base disturbance commonly seen in pregnant women

Respiratory alkalosis