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Flashcards in Cardiovascular disease & its effect on vision Deck (92)
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1

what is a transient ischaemic attack known as

a temporary disruption go blood supply (that results on no long term damage)

2

what can a transient ischaemic attack be the result from

an embolism (such as a circulating fragment of an atheromatous plaque) temporarily blocking a vessel, the function of the area supplied by the vessels in impaired

3

what happens when the embolism moves on in a transient ischaemic attack

function returns

4

name an example of a specific TSA associated with the eyes

amaurosis fugax (fleeting darkness/blindness)

5

what is amaurosis fugax

a painless unilateral loss of vision resulting from a transient retinal ischaemia caused by an embolism in the retinal vasculature

6

what is the loss in vision described as by a patient, of amaurosis fugax

vision goes dark, like a curtain descending or ascending on the eye for a short period of time, which then vision goes back to normal

7

what do the inner 5 layers of the retina receive oxygenated blood from

central retinal artery

8

what is the central retinal artery a branch off

ophthalmic artery

9

what does the ophthalmic artery arise from

carotid artery (a branch off the aorta)

10

what happens in the ophthalmic artery as a result of amaurosis fugax

a dislodge is stuck in the ophthalmic artery, patient goes blind as the retina becomes ischaemic & stops functioning, then the blood clot breaks up and resolves itself whereby patient can see again

11

what may form a transient occlusion of a retinal vessel

an atheromatous plaque in the carotid artery which may disintegrate

12

what may emboli of an atheromatous plaque in the carotid artery which may form a transient occlusion of a retinal vessel be made of

various materials such as:
cholesterol crystals
platelet aggregates
lipid

13

instead of an emboli (which is most common), what else can be the cause of transient ischaemic event

vasopastic events such as:
unusual narrowing of vessels (artery contracts itself)
or
haematological causes such as:
abnormalities in blood constituents e.g. sickle cell anaemia

14

why is the CNS particularly susceptible to infarction

it needs a continuous supply of oxygen & CNS tissue does not regenerate

15

what are cerebrovascular accidents CVAs most commonly know as, and what causes it

stroke
blood supply to vessels which supply the brain become blocked so it becomes non functional (infarct)

16

what are the two sources which supply the brain with oxygenated (arterial) blood

- 2 internal carotid arteries
- 2 vertebral arteries

17

which part of the brain do the 2 internal carotid arteries supply

anterior

18

which areas do the 2 vertebral arteries supply

poster brain & spinal chord

19

what do the 2 vertebral arteries merge to form

basilar artery

20

what are the internal carotid & basilar arterial supplies united by

anterior & posterior communicating arteries at the circle of willis (found at the base of the brain)

21

why does the brain have two blood supplies

if one blood supply is impaired, the other can supply the brain

22

which three arteries arise fro the circle of willis

anterior cerebral artery
middle cerebral artery
posterior cerebral artery

23

what area of the brain does the anterior cerebral artery supply

front

24

what area of the brain does the middle cerebral artery supply

middle

25

what part of the brain does the posterior cerebral artery supply

back

26

what are the two types of stroke

- hemorrhagic
- occlusive (ischaemic)

27

what is a hemorrhagic stroke caused by

a ruptured aneurysm or an AVM
(blood comes/leaks out & that area of the brain does not receive oxygen from the vessel & that part of the brain stays dead forever)

28

what % does a hemorrhagic stroke account for from all strokes

20%

29

what is an occlusive (ischaemic) stroke caused by

a thrombosis (blood clot) on an atheromatous plaque

30

how many % of strokes does an occlusive ischaemic stroke account for

80%