Cell Division and Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Division and Tissues Deck (95):
1

Inerphase

time between cell divisions
DNA is found as thin threads of chromatin in the nucleus
DNA replication occurs during the interphase

2

Prophase

chromatin condenses into chromosomes
each chromosome consists of two chromatids joined at the centromere
centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell
nuclear envelopes disappear

3

chromosomes align in the center of the cell in association with the spindle fibers

Metaphase

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Anaphase

chromatids separate to form two sets of identical chromosomes
chromosomes assisted by the spindle fibers, move toward the centrioles at each end of the cell

5

Telophase

arrival of chromosomes at the opposite poles
chromosomes disperse
nuclear envelopes and nucleoli form
cytoplasm begins to divide to form two cells
formation of cleavage furrow

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produces 2 daughter cells identical to the parent cell; each of these cells will have 46 chromosomes

Mitosis

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the formation of sperm cells and female sex cells which occurs only in the testes and ovaries respectively

Meiosis

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the role of RNA

functions as a messenger and a decoder of the DNA to achieve DNA's task of specifying the structure of proteins to be built at the ribosomes

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Thee Varieties of RNA

tRNA
rRNA
mRNA

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recognize a specific amino acid and attach itself to that amino acid

tRNA

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helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built

rRNa

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carry the message containing instructions for protein synthesis; photocopy of DNA instructions

mRNA

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involves the transfer of information from DNA base sequence into the complementary base sequence of mRNA; occurs in nucleus

Transcription

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the phase where the language of nucleic acids (base sequence) is translated into the language of proteins (amino acid sequence); occurs in cytoplasm

Translation

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genetic code is copied or transcribed onto mRNA in the cell nucleus

Transcription

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mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to ribosomes in the cytoplasm where the coded info is translated into specific amino acid sequences in a protein

Translation

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4 Primary Types of body tissues

Epithelium
Connective
Muscle
Nerve

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the lining, covering, glandular tissue of the body

Epithelium

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Parts of Epithelium

apical surface
basement membrane

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part of epithelium that is avascular

apical surface

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part of epithelium attached to connective tissue with blood vessels and capillaries

basement membrane

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division of cytoplasm that begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase

Cytokinesis

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Functions of Epithelium

Absorption
Filtration
Protection
Secretion

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Characteristics of Epithelium

epithelial cells fit closely together to form continuous sheets
the membranes always have on free or unattached surface- apical surface
have no blood supply of their own and depend on diffusion from the capillaries in the underlying connective tissues
if well nourished, epithelial cells can regenerate themselves easily

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Classification of Epithelium by cell arrangement

simple
stratified

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Classification of epithelium by cell shape

squamous
cuboidal
columnar

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flattened, like fish scales

squamous epithelium

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cube-shaped like dice

cuboidal

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shaped like columns

columnar

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Function of Simple Epithelium

absorption, secretion, filtration

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This type of epithelium usually forms membranes where filtration or exchange of substances by rapid diffusion occurs

Simple Squamous Epith.

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location of simple squamous epith.

air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries, serous membranes

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common in glands and their ducts, walls of kidney tubules, suface of ovaries

simple cuboidal epith.

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has presence of goblet cells

Simple columnar Epith

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lines entire length of digestive tract from the stomach to the anus

Simple columnar Epith

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function of simple columnar epith

absorption, gastric secretions

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secrete mucus for lubrication

goblet cells

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all of the cells rest on the basement membrane
some cells are shorter thna the others and nuclei appear at different heighs

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

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function of Stratified Epith.

protection

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named according to the type of cell at the free edge

Stratified Epith.

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most common stratified epithelium; found in sites that receive a good deal of abuse or friction

Stratified squamous

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location of stratified squamous

esophagus, mouth, outer portion of the skin

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RARE; only in ducts of large glands

Stratified cuboidal epith
stratified columnar epith

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stratified squamous epithelium that forms the lining of a few organs, urinary bladder, ureter, urethra

Transitional epith

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when stretched as when filled with urine, the rounded, domelike superficial cells flatten and become squamouslike

Transitional epith

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consists of one or more cells that make and secret a particular product called a secretion

gland

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ductless glands; secretions are hormones; go through blood

Endocrine glads

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Examples of endocrine glands

thyroid gland, adrenals and pituitary gland

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empty their secretions to the epithelial surface through the ducts

Exocrine glands

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examples of exocrine glands

sweat glands, oil glands, liver, pancreas

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consists of living cells surrounded by a matrix
most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types

Connective tissue

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function of connective tissue

connects body parts

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Common characteristics of connective tissues

Variations of blood supply
Extracellular matrix

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well vascularized connective tissue

bone

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connective tissue with poor blood supply

tendons and ligaments

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avascular connective tissue

cartilage

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white fiber; high tensile strength;

collagen

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yellow fiber; ability to be stretched and then recoil

elastic

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fine collagen fibers; found in spleen

reticular

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makes the CT able to withstand stretching and other abuses

extracellular matrix

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aka osseus tissue

bone

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matrix of bone

hard matrix with Ca salts and abundant collagen fibers

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less hard and more flexible than bone

cartilage

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abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a glassy, bluish appearance

hyaline cartilage

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location of hyaline cartilage

larynx; attaches ribs to breastbone; covers ends of bones where they form joints

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provides rigidity with even more flexibility

elastic cartilage

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location of elastic cartilage

external ear, epiglottis, auditory tube

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flexible and capable of withstanding considerable pressure and connects structures subject to greater pressure

fibrocartliage

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collagen fibers are the main matrix element
presence of fibroblasts between fiber
form strong ropelike structures

Dense connective tissue

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matrix looks shiny white
consists mailly of parallel collagen fibers arranged in bundles
few elastic fibers

regular

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location of regular DCT

tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

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muscle to bone

tendon

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bone to bone

ligament

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consists of predominantly collagen fibers
randomly arranged with some elastic fibers

irregular

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location of irregular DCT

dermis, submucosa of digestive tract, fibrous capsules of organs and of joints

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consist of predominantly freely branching elastic fibers and fibroblast are present in spaces between fibers

Elastic

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location of elastic DCT

lung tissue, walls of elastic arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes

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softer, have more cells and fewer fibers than any connective tissue type except blood

loose connective tissue

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consists of fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular) and several kinds of cells (fibroblast, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, and mast cells) embedded in a semifluid ground substance

Areolar tissue

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location of areolar tissue

subcutaneous layer deep to skin, papillary (superficial) region of dermis of skin, lamina propria, of mucous membranes and around blood vessels, nerves and body organs, capillaries

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consists of adipocytes,

adipose tissue

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cells specialized to store triglycerides (fats) as a large ventrally located droplet; nucles and cytoplasm are peripherally located

adipocytes

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adipose tissue location

found in subcutaneous tissue beneath skin, around kidneys, cushions eyeballs in their sockets, fat depots in hips and breasts

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interwoven reticular fibers associated with reticular cells

reticular connective tissue

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reticular connective tissue

lymphocytes, lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow

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aka vascular tissue

blood

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considered a connective tissue because it contains blood cells surrounded by nonliving fluid matrix called blood plasma

blood

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transport vehicle which carries nutrients, wastes, O2, CO2, etc

blood

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highly specialized to contract or shorten, to produce movement

Muscle tissue

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attached to the skeleton
voluntary
long, cyndrical, multinucleated cells
has striations

Skeletal muscle

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found in heart
involuntary
uninucleate
has striations

cardiac muscle

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contain gap, junctions that allow ions to pass freely from cell to cell, resulting in rapid conductions of impulses across the heart

intercalated disks

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aka visceral muscles
no striations
uninucleate
spindle shaped (pointed ends)
found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, bladder, uterus, blood vessels, airways
involuntary

smooth muscle

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cells of nervous tissue
receive and conduct electrical impulses from one part of the body to another

neurons

95

two major functional characteristics of neurons

irritability and conductivity