Flashcards in Cell injury/death/adaptation Deck (50):
what is the difference between etiology and pathogenesis?
Etiology- ORIGIN of disease, WHY a disease occurs
Pathogenesis- DEVELOPMENT of disease, HOW a disease occurs
cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction and Renal atrophy are all forms of _____ injury
what are the (4) cellular targets for injury?
1) cell membranes
3) cell proteins
T/F: clinical signs and symptoms are usually closely timed to the molecular/biochemical changes following injury
clinical signs are usually several steps removed
What are the effects of Hypoxia-ischemia on the cell membrane?
impairs Na+ pump: Na+ and Ca++ influx, K+ efflux
cell swells as water floods cell
What are the end effects of Hypoxia-ischemia on cellular metabolism?
1) decreased glycogen stores
2) increased lipid deposition
Generation of reactive oxygen species is associated with what?
2) oxygen toxicity
4) radiation (UV, X-ray)
how do ROS (reactive Ox) damage cellular components?
- lipid peroxidation
- protein fragmentation
- single strand DNA breaks
ROS cause _____-_____ DNA breaks
How are reactive oxygen species controlled by cells?
2) antioxidants (vitamins, glutathione)
3) serum proteins (bind/reduce iron and copper)
_____ (an ion) activates many enzymes inside the cell, and its concentration within the cell is highly controlled
the degree of cell injury is determined by what factors?
A) physiologic state of the cell
B) intensity of insult
C) duration of insult
D) # of exposures to insult
what are the signaling mechanisms for cellular apoptosis?
1) intrinsic program
2) “death signals”
3) removal of a trophic signals – e.g. hormones
4) ROS, radiation, and toxins
5) effect of cytotoxic T cells
Fas-ligand binding to Fas receptor is a form of _____ signals
the ____ gene family serve as on and off switches that regulate the membrane permeability of the mitochondria
Bcl-2 gene family
Bcl-2 and bcl-x gene products ______ apoptosis
when does cell death occur?
Cell death occurs when the insult overcomes compensation mechanisms
apoptosis signaling pathways converge on an autocatalytic proteolytic cascade of ________
high cytoplasmic levels of Ca2+ will activate which digressive enzymes?
Cell injury may result in what 4 effects?
a. Reversible cell injury
b. Cellular adaptations associated with changes in cell number, size or differentiation
c. Cellular adaptations associated with abnormal accumulations
d. Cell death – necrosis or apoptosis
what are the common causes of reversible cell damage?
b. Infectious agents
d. Thermal injury
what are the 2 morphological types of reversible cell injury?
hydropic change and fatty change
what are the morphological types of necrosis?
what are the characteristics of coagulative necrosis?
1) cytoplasmic proteins are coagulated
2) The nucleus is lost, but the pink outline of the cell is still present
what are the characteristics of liquefactive necrosis?
A) The tissue is totally digested by the release of lysosomal enzymes during the acute inflammatory response.
B) associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections
what is Caseous Necrosis?
a. Associated with M. tuberculosis infection.
b. The tissue has a white and "cheesy" appearance on gross examination.
c. the body "walls off" the area with granulocytes
where is Fat Necrosis commonly found? what are its characteristics?
A) found in necrosis of breast or pancreatic tissue
B) adipose has a chalky white-yelllow color
C) dead cells look like "soap bubbles"