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Flashcards in Cell injury/death/adaptation Deck (50):
1

what is the difference between etiology and pathogenesis?

Etiology- ORIGIN of disease, WHY a disease occurs

Pathogenesis- DEVELOPMENT of disease, HOW a disease occurs

2

cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction and Renal atrophy are all forms of _____ injury

hypoxic

3

what are the (4) cellular targets for injury?

1) cell membranes
2) mitochondria
3) cell proteins
4) DNA

4

T/F: clinical signs and symptoms are usually closely timed to the molecular/biochemical changes following injury

FALSE

clinical signs are usually several steps removed

5

What are the effects of Hypoxia-ischemia on the cell membrane?

impairs Na+ pump: Na+ and Ca++ influx, K+ efflux

cell swells as water floods cell

6

What are the end effects of Hypoxia-ischemia on cellular metabolism?

1) decreased glycogen stores

2) increased lipid deposition

7

Generation of reactive oxygen species is associated with what?

1) inflammation
2) oxygen toxicity
3) chemical/drugs
4) radiation (UV, X-ray)
5) Aging

8

how do ROS (reactive Ox) damage cellular components?

- lipid peroxidation

- protein fragmentation

- single strand DNA breaks

9

ROS cause _____-_____ DNA breaks

single-strand

10

How are reactive oxygen species controlled by cells?

1) enzymes

2) antioxidants (vitamins, glutathione)

3) serum proteins (bind/reduce iron and copper)

11

_____ (an ion) activates many enzymes inside the cell, and its concentration within the cell is highly controlled

calcium (Ca2+)

12

the degree of cell injury is determined by what factors?

A) physiologic state of the cell
B) intensity of insult
C) duration of insult
D) # of exposures to insult

13

what are the signaling mechanisms for cellular apoptosis?

1) intrinsic program
2) “death signals”
3) removal of a trophic signals – e.g. hormones
4) ROS, radiation, and toxins
5) effect of cytotoxic T cells

14

Fas-ligand binding to Fas receptor is a form of _____ signals

death signals

(trigger apoptosis)

15

the ____ gene family serve as on and off switches that regulate the membrane permeability of the mitochondria

Bcl-2 gene family

16

Bcl-2 and bcl-x gene products ______ apoptosis

inhibit

17

when does cell death occur?

Cell death occurs when the insult overcomes compensation mechanisms

18

apoptosis signaling pathways converge on an autocatalytic proteolytic cascade of ________

caspases

19

high cytoplasmic levels of Ca2+ will activate which digressive enzymes?

a. phospholipases
b. proteases
c. endonucleases
d. ATPase

20

Cell injury may result in what 4 effects?

a. Reversible cell injury

b. Cellular adaptations associated with changes in cell number, size or differentiation

c. Cellular adaptations associated with abnormal accumulations

d. Cell death – necrosis or apoptosis

21

what are the common causes of reversible cell damage?

a. Toxins
b. Infectious agents
c. Hypoxia
d. Thermal injury

22

what are the 2 morphological types of reversible cell injury?

hydropic change and fatty change

23

what are the morphological types of necrosis?

Coagulative
Liquefactive
Caseous
Enzymatic (fat)

24

what are the characteristics of coagulative necrosis?

1) cytoplasmic proteins are coagulated

2) The nucleus is lost, but the pink outline of the cell is still present

25

what are the characteristics of liquefactive necrosis?

A) The tissue is totally digested by the release of lysosomal enzymes during the acute inflammatory response.

B) associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections

26

what is Caseous Necrosis?

a. Associated with M. tuberculosis infection.

b. The tissue has a white and "cheesy" appearance on gross examination.

c. the body "walls off" the area with granulocytes

27

where is Fat Necrosis commonly found? what are its characteristics?

A) found in necrosis of breast or pancreatic tissue

B) adipose has a chalky white-yelllow color

C) dead cells look like "soap bubbles"

28

Morphologic features of apoptosis include:

1) cell shrinkage
2) Chromatin condensation
3) Plasma membrane blebbing
4) Phagocytosis of the apoptotic bodies without a significant inflammatory response.

29

how does the morphology of necrosis and apoptosis differ?

Necrosis- Multiple cells, Cell swelling, Cell lysis

Apoptosis- Single cell, Cell shrinkage, Chromatin Condensation, Apoptotic bodies

30

while inflammation is seen in forms of _______, it is not seen in ________

seen in necrosis, not seen in apoptosis

31

Chronic cell injury leads to cell ________

adaptations

32

how do cells change in response to chronic injury?

a. Alterations in cell size

b. Alterations in cell number

c. Alterations in cell differentiation

d. Intracellular accumulations

33

what is atrophy? hypertrophy?

Atrophy - a decrease in cell size and function

Hypertrophy - an increase in cell size and is associated with an increase in functional capacity.

34

what are the 2 etiologies of hypertrophy?

1) response to trophic signals (hormones)

2) response to increased functional demand (AKA muscle growth)

35

what is hyperplasia? what are its general characteristics?

Hyperplasia - an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ

1) may involve the proliferation of epithelial and/or stromal cells

2) proliferation is stimulated by trophic factors

3) increase the risk for subsequent neoplasia's

36

what are some causes (etiologies) of cellular atrophy?

A) decreased workload
B) loss of innervation
C) chronic ischemia (reduced bloodflow)
D) starvation
E) lack of trophic factors

37

what are the common etiological factors for hypertrophy?

A) increased functional demand
B) increased or imbalanced nutrition
C) increased hormonal stimulation

38

Traumatic Keratosis is an example of what form of cell response?

Hyperplasia due to chronic irritation

39

what is metaplasia?

Metaplasia - one adult cell type is replaced by another ADULT cell type in response to chronic stress.

40

Acid reflux, and smoking, can both cause a _______ of epithelial tissues

metaplasia

41

what is Steatosis?

Fatty liver

- caused by triglyceride accumulation (intracellular accumulation)

42

what is a Xanthoma?

cholesterol accumulation in the epithelium

- common in elderly

43

what are the histological characteristics of xanthomas?

foamy looking macrophages filled with cholesterol

44

Cholesterol build-up in vessels can cause what 2 conditions?

Atherosclerosis

cholesterol thrombus

45

alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency, Mallory bodies, and Alzheimers disease are all associated with an accumulation of what?

protein

46

what is an example of a disease caused by carbohydrate accumulation?

glycogen storage disease

47

what are 2 examples of conditions caused by exogenous carbon pigmentation

1) Anthracosis (asymptomatic... anthricite coal dust)

2) Pneumoconiosis (symptomatic- restriction. from coal)

48

Melanotic-macules are caused by what?

accumulation of ENDOGENOUS pigments (melanin)

49

what are the characteristics of a Hemosiderin? what causes them?

1) A yellow-brown pigment represents aggregates of ferritin micelles.

2) Its accumulation arises from excess iron locally due to hemorrhage and can lead to hemosiderosis.

50

what causes Bilirubin to accumulate in the liver?

Accumulates in hepatocytes and bile ducts due to hemolysis, obstructed bile flow, and/or hepatocellular disease.