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Flashcards in pulmonary pathology Deck (40):
1

what do type 1 pneumocyte cells produce?

surfactant

2

what is Hemoptysis?

coughing up blood

3

what is Dyspnea?

- shortness of breath

- difficulty breathing, perception of needing to breathe deeper and faster

4

___________ is the collapse of lung volume

Atelectasis

5

a ____________ occurs when air enters the pleural space or cavity, leads to collapse of the lung

pneumothrorax

6

what is the term for when fluid builds up in the pleural space?

pleural diffusion

7

how does pulmonary edema progress?

Accumulation of fluid in the lungs, first in the interstitial tissues, then ultimately filling up the distal air spaces

8

what are the causes of pulmonary edema?

increased intravascular pressure (CHF)

hypoproteinemia (low protein)

vascular damage (infections, autoimmune diseases)

9

what are the problems that result from pulmonary edema?

Inhibits normal oxygen exchange

Predisposes to infection

10

Pulmonary Thromboemboli usually originate from where?

Usually from the deep veins of the legs or pelvic veins

11

what happens when a very large thrombi reaches the lungs?

they lodge at the bifurcation of pulmonary arteries (“saddle” embolus) and can cause sudden death

12

list the predisposing factors for pulmonary thromboemboli

chronic illness
prolonged bed rest (immobility)
hypercoagulable state
deep vein thromboses (DVTs)

13

what are the 4 classic disorders that are associated with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

** Emphysema
** Chronic bronchitis


Bronchiectasis
Asthma

14

what is COPD?

Group of diseases that causes chronic airflow obstruction

15

what is emphysema?

permanent enlargement of the DISTAL small air spaces due to destruction of alveolar septal walls

(alveolar wall destruction & overinflation)

16

what are the clinical signs of emphysema?

dyspnea, cough, prolonged exhalation (“pink puffers”)

17

emphysema is caused by an imbalance between _________ and ________ enzymes

protease and anti-protease enzymes

18

___________ is a major cause of emphysema

smoking

19

what is Centriacinar emphysema?

-involves the CENTRAL portion of the acini
- usually affects UPPER lobes

- most often related to smoking

20

____________ emphysema is most often related to smoking

centriacinar

21

________ emphysema involves the entire acinar unit from the respiratory bronchioles to terminal alveoli

Panacinar

22

Panacinar emphysema mostly effects the ________ lobes

lower

23

in what group is panacinar emphysema most often seen?

seen in patients with α1-AT deficiency

24

___________ emphysema is associated with dilated spaces, and collapsed lungs

bullous

25

what are the clinical requirements for Chronic Bronchitis?

Cough + sputum production for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years

26

what are the pathological signs for chronic bronchitis?

increased mucus glands
chronic inflammation
fibrosis and narrowing of the airways

27

what are the Predisposing factors for chronic bronchitis and emphysema?

1) smoking
2) atmosphere pollutants
3) infection(s)
4) genetic factors

28

the genetic factors involved with chronic bronchitis involve _______ and ______ deficiency

Cystic fibrosis, and alpha-1-AT deficiency

29

what is Bronchiectasis?

chronic infection with:
- permanent major airway dilation; secondary to obstruction, infection or both

30

what are the clinical symptoms of Bronchiectasis?

severe cough, bloody mucoid expectoration, dyspnea

31

the complications of bronchiectasis include what?

abscess
pneumonia
bronchopleural fistula
empyema

32

predisposing factors for bronchiectasis:

obstructive tumors
foreign bodies
cystic fibrosis (mucus plugs)


other: COPD, CF; suppurative or necrotizing pneumonia

33

bronchiectasis is associated with an infection of what?

tuburculosis

S. aureus

34

__________ is characterized by an increased irritability and prominence of smooth muscle in bronchi and bronchioles

Asthma

35

what are the "initiating factors" of asthma?

allergies, infections, exercise, drugs, emotions

36

what is atopic asthma? what about Non-atopic?

A) Atopic – allergic, extrinsic
- caused by type 1 hypersensitivity

B) Non-atopic – intrinsic
- may be initiated by viruses, air pollutants

37

atopic asthma is caused by a type 1 hypersensitivity, which is mediated by _____

IgE

38

what immune cell is classically found in patients suffering from asthma?

eosinophils

(and type 2 helper T cells)

39

describe the pathogenesis of Asthma

- antigen binds to surface IgE on mast cells
- mast cells release a large number of mediators, including histamine and leukotrienes

40

in patients with asthma, there is a prominence of ________ in the lungs

smooth muscle