Flashcards in pulmonary pathology Deck (40):
what do type 1 pneumocyte cells produce?
what is Hemoptysis?
coughing up blood
what is Dyspnea?
- shortness of breath
- difficulty breathing, perception of needing to breathe deeper and faster
___________ is the collapse of lung volume
a ____________ occurs when air enters the pleural space or cavity, leads to collapse of the lung
what is the term for when fluid builds up in the pleural space?
how does pulmonary edema progress?
Accumulation of fluid in the lungs, first in the interstitial tissues, then ultimately filling up the distal air spaces
what are the causes of pulmonary edema?
increased intravascular pressure (CHF)
hypoproteinemia (low protein)
vascular damage (infections, autoimmune diseases)
what are the problems that result from pulmonary edema?
Inhibits normal oxygen exchange
Predisposes to infection
Pulmonary Thromboemboli usually originate from where?
Usually from the deep veins of the legs or pelvic veins
what happens when a very large thrombi reaches the lungs?
they lodge at the bifurcation of pulmonary arteries (“saddle” embolus) and can cause sudden death
list the predisposing factors for pulmonary thromboemboli
prolonged bed rest (immobility)
deep vein thromboses (DVTs)
what are the 4 classic disorders that are associated with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
** Chronic bronchitis
what is COPD?
Group of diseases that causes chronic airflow obstruction
what is emphysema?
permanent enlargement of the DISTAL small air spaces due to destruction of alveolar septal walls
(alveolar wall destruction & overinflation)
what are the clinical signs of emphysema?
dyspnea, cough, prolonged exhalation (“pink puffers”)
emphysema is caused by an imbalance between _________ and ________ enzymes
protease and anti-protease enzymes
___________ is a major cause of emphysema
what is Centriacinar emphysema?
-involves the CENTRAL portion of the acini
- usually affects UPPER lobes
- most often related to smoking
____________ emphysema is most often related to smoking
________ emphysema involves the entire acinar unit from the respiratory bronchioles to terminal alveoli
Panacinar emphysema mostly effects the ________ lobes
in what group is panacinar emphysema most often seen?
seen in patients with α1-AT deficiency
___________ emphysema is associated with dilated spaces, and collapsed lungs
what are the clinical requirements for Chronic Bronchitis?
Cough + sputum production for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years
what are the pathological signs for chronic bronchitis?
increased mucus glands
fibrosis and narrowing of the airways
what are the Predisposing factors for chronic bronchitis and emphysema?
2) atmosphere pollutants
4) genetic factors
the genetic factors involved with chronic bronchitis involve _______ and ______ deficiency
Cystic fibrosis, and alpha-1-AT deficiency
what is Bronchiectasis?
chronic infection with:
- permanent major airway dilation; secondary to obstruction, infection or both
what are the clinical symptoms of Bronchiectasis?
severe cough, bloody mucoid expectoration, dyspnea
the complications of bronchiectasis include what?
predisposing factors for bronchiectasis:
cystic fibrosis (mucus plugs)
other: COPD, CF; suppurative or necrotizing pneumonia
bronchiectasis is associated with an infection of what?
__________ is characterized by an increased irritability and prominence of smooth muscle in bronchi and bronchioles
what are the "initiating factors" of asthma?
allergies, infections, exercise, drugs, emotions
what is atopic asthma? what about Non-atopic?
A) Atopic – allergic, extrinsic
- caused by type 1 hypersensitivity
B) Non-atopic – intrinsic
- may be initiated by viruses, air pollutants
atopic asthma is caused by a type 1 hypersensitivity, which is mediated by _____
what immune cell is classically found in patients suffering from asthma?
(and type 2 helper T cells)
describe the pathogenesis of Asthma
- antigen binds to surface IgE on mast cells
- mast cells release a large number of mediators, including histamine and leukotrienes