Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitter Systems Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitter Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitter Systems Deck (17):

What is the function of an Astrocyte?

Structural support; Transport substances from blood to neurons. Wrap themselves around the synapse of two neurons and help control calcium signaling (Tripartite synapse)


What is the function of an oligodendrocyte?

Myelinate many axons at once in white matter


What is the function of an ependymal cell?

Line ventricles of the brain


Discuss Neurotrophic factors

When neurons are deprived of them, they die via apoptosis.
1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
2. Neurotrophin-3
3. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor


What are the 3 major groups of neurotransmitters?

Amino acids, amines and neuropeptides


Name the amino acid small molecule neurotransmitters

Glutamate, GABA, glycine


Name the amine small molecule neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin and Histamine


Name the Neuropeptides

Cholecystokinin, Substance P, Enkephalin, and Somatostatin


Discuss Fast neurotransmission

Occurs between EPSPs and IPSPs. Ligand-gated ion channels are the receptor type. The most common EPSP in the CNS is glutamate, IPSP is GABA.


Discuss Neuromodulation

The release of a chemical from a neuron the either alters the efficiency of a neurons synaptic transmission or cellular properties. Must interact with G-protein coupled receptors (Metabotropic receptors)


What are the 5 neurotransmitter projection systems in the CNS?

Acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine


Discuss the Acetylcholine system (Basal Forebrain group)

Cholinergic neurons are in the basal forebrain
Basal Forebrain: Medial septal nucleus group project to the hippocampus.
Nucleus basalis: Nuclei project to cerebral cortex.


Discuss the Acetylcholine system (Pontomesencephalic complex)

Comprised of the pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, is located in the brainstem. Project to the thalamus; Controls arousal, sleep-wake cycles and muscle contraction.


Discuss the 4 Dopamine systems

1. Nigrostriatal pathway: Neurons in the substantia nigra project to the striatum. (Voluntary movements)
2. Mesolimbic pathway: Neurons in the ventral tegmental area innervate the frontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (reward system)
3. Mesocortical pathway: VTA neurons project to the prefrontal cortex. Damage characteristic of parkinsons.
4. Tuberoinfundibular pathway: Originate in the hypothalamus, released into capillary plexus of hypophyseal portal system.


Discuss the Norepinephrine system

The locus ceruleus of the pons and laterl tegmental area of the medulla contain neurons that project to all parts of the brain. (Mood, anxiety, pain, arousal and attention)


Discuss the Serotonin system

Found in the raphe nuclei; Regulates wakefulness and fires during awake state.


Discuss the Histamine system

Histamine is synthesized in the neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus, specifically the tuberomammillary nucleus.