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four basic types of tissue

1) nervous tissue
2) connective tissue
3) muscle tissue
4) epithelial tissue


List the 10 body systems and whether generalised or localised

1) musculo-skeletal - G
2) cardiovascular - G
3) immune and lymphatic -G
4) endocrine - L
5) nervous - G
6) integumentary system -G
7) respiratory - L
8) digestive - L
9) renal - L
10) reproductive - L


what is a peroxisome

contain enzymes that detoxify certain toxins


what does the body consists of and what are the percentages

water (60%),
protein (17%),
lipids (15%),
minerals (inorganic acids and electrolytes 5%),
nucleic acids (2% )
carbohydrates (1%)


methods of examining tissues

1) fixation (e.g. formalin) - treatment with chemical that stops enzymatic activity, freezes the tissue at state of fixation
2) embedding (e.g. paraffin wax) - put into solid medium so can cut sections of tissues
3) sectioning (~ 5 μm thick) - cut with special scissors
4) staining, e.g. haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) - combination most commonly used stains nucleus and ribosomes - mRNA
5) mounting - put coverslip on it using mounting medium that is glow like substance that is clear and goes hard so get permanent preparation


cells when end in -blast and -cyte what does it mean

-blast - not a fully differentiated cell may have functions of its own but still has potential to further differentiate
-cyte - fully differentiated


what are the two main types of extracellular material (connective tissue) and the subtypes

1) amorphous - shapeless
2) fibrous - 3 types
1. collagen
2. reticular
3. elastic


describe the characteristics of collagen, reticular and elastic fibres how strong, what colour, what colour stain

strong, flexible, white, eosinophilic orange in verhoeffs stain, type 1 but can be varied
ret - fine network, poorly stained H&E back in reticulin stain
elas - stretchable, elastic (elastin), yellow, eosinophilic and black in verhoeffs stain


connective tissue proper functions

• support - in abdomen help gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidneys
• protection - capsule against mechanical injury for lymph nodes
• connections within locomotor system - tendons connect muscle to bone ligaments connect bone to bone
• holds tissues together - reticulum fibres hold cells together
• energy storage - 2 ways, 1 in elastic tendons and ligaments, 2 in fat tissue


connective tissue proper types

• loose (higher ratio of cells to fibres)
• adipose (many fat cells)
• dense (lower ratio of cells to fibres)
- regularly arranged
- irregularly arranged
eg - horse skin


list the 8 cells associated with connective tissue

1) mesenchymal cells
2) fibroblast
3) fibrocyte
4) macrophage
5) fat cell - adipocyte
6) mast cell
7) plasma cell
8) melanocyte


where is mesenchymal cells found, their shape and nucleus

- in embryonic tissues and some adult tissues, type of stem cell
- stellate (star-shaped) - many cytoplasmic processes
- oval/round nucleus


fibroblast shape, nucleus, where found and function

- stellate or spindle-shaped
- ovoid nucleus
- abundant basophilic cytoplasm - lots of ribosomes as producing collagen
synthesizes and secretes collagen and other extracellular matrix components
- differentiates into fibrocyte


fribrocyte shape, nucleus, cytoplasm, function

- small flattened elongated cell
- elongated nucleus
- very little cytoplasm - hard to distinguish
- less active in secretion than fibroblast as stop synthesising
- Role is to maintain connective tissue structure


mast cell where found, cytoplasm with what within, function

- scattered, in low numbers in most connective tissues (often close to blood vessels)
- cytoplasm filled with granules (basophilic so stain blue) containing heparin (anticoagulant), histamine (increases
blood vessel permeability), serotonin (vasoconstrictor) and proteases
- degranulate when tissue damaged promote inflammatory reaction


what are the two types of epithelial tissue and their function

1. Layers or sheets - surface covering / lining – barriers / absorption / secretion - single layer simple, multi layers stratified - always a basement membrane, may not always see
2. Glands - secretion


what are the 5 types of simple epithelial layers and their shapes and nuclei and example of where found

1) squamous - nuclei squashed, scale or plate like (flat), line duct and capillaries
eg - serous membrane of internal organs
2) cuboidal - cube-shaped cells, nucleus fills up most of the space, appear perpendicular to the surface of epithelium
eg - secretory cells of thyroid glands
3) columnar - tall cells, nucleus tends to be towards the base of teh cell, can be elongated
eg - secretory cells of prostate glands
4) pseudostratified -tall and short cells which rest on basement membrane, nuclei at different levels so looked stratified
eg - in respiratory tract
5) transitional - appears stratified but pseudostratified according to some peeps
eg - urinary bladder


stratified layer of epithelial how named and what are the types

multi layers present so not all cells attach the basement membrane
reference to the shape of the cells located on the surface
1) squamous - may undergo keratinization eg the skin
2) cuboidal
3) columnar
2) & 3) often seen in ducts of glands


what are the 3 surfaces for epithelial cells and list the structural specialisation

1) apical surface
1. cilia
2. microvilli
3. stereocilia
2) lateral
1. interdigitation
2. junctional complex
3) basal
1. basal striations
2. basement membrane
3) hemidesmosomes


what are stereocillia, interdigitation and junctional complex

large microvilli; non-motile; increase surface area for absorption / secretion;
e.g. in epithelial cells of epididymis
interlocking structure
occluding type
- tight junctions (zonula occludens) adhering type - seals them off - waterproofing
- desmosomes (zonula / macula adherens) communicating type - like super glue between cells eg in heart muscle
- gap junctions (nexus) - communication junctions, open channel between cells


what are basal striations and hemidesmosomes

- invaginations or infoldings of basal surface of cells; to increase surface area for active transport of substances into and out of cell
attach cell to extracellular matrix


development of endocrine and exocrine glands

both arise similarly as localised proliferation of epithelial
endocrine - lose connection to surface
exocrine - retain connection to the surface


exocrine glands what comprised of and how they secrete

Exocrine glands comprise one or several secretory units which are connected to a surface(of tissue, duct, lumen etc.) by a system of ducts - thus their secretory product is discharged onto the body surfaces or into visceral lumina. These glands produce enzymes, milk, sweat and other secretions.


morphology of exocrine glands what are the two opposites

simple - one or more secretory units within single unbranched duct
compound - multiple secretory units within system of branched ducts

tubular - secretory unit in shape of tube - cuboidal
alveolar (acinar) - secretory unit in shape of sphere
tubuloalveolar - both types of secretory units present


different classifcations of exocrine based on mode of secretion

1) merocrine - only secretory product released from cell; exocytosis and released once bound to cell membrane
2) apocrine - product is membrane-bound and secreted along with some cell membrane and cytoplasmic material of the cell;
3) holocrine - the whole cell disintegrates to form the secretion and releases the product, very high turnover tissues


different classifications of exocrine cells based on nature of secretion and characteristics

1) mucus
- thick & viscous
- cell accumulates material in apical cytoplasm (pale stained) & nucleus pushed towards base and flattened
- cell referred to as mucous cell
- Looks like fairy floss
2) serous
- thin & watery
- cell nucleus spherical & near central
- secretory granules in apical cytoplasm
- cell referred to as serous cell
- Non-distinct


what are veterinary positions based upon

based on a plantigrade - palms of the hand and paws on the ground - stance with all limbs in pronation


define planta, pronate, supinate,

Planta - sole of the feet
Pronate - turn towards/inwards - fingers toes pointing forward
Supinate - turn outwards


what is the words for the top and bottom surface of the animal foot

dorsal upper surface of foot,
palmar bottom surface of foot in forelimb
plantar bottom surface of foot in hind limb


define axial and appendicular

axial in the middle line of the body, appendicular the appendages