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what are holes called on the skull and what is their function and what is the space where the eyes lay on the skull and what is different with a dog

nerves and blood vessels [ass between the brain and the tissues outside the brain case
orbits - dogs top part of the orbit is completed by a fibrous ligament


How many cervical vertebrae are there what are they called and what are between the vertebrae the function and the holes within the vertebrae

7 - C1 is atlas and C2 is axis because C1 and the skull con rotate around it
Between the last 5 vertebrae there are fibrocartilagenous discs allow small movement bu restrict extent of possible movements
intervertebral foramen within the gap between two vertebrae is where the nerves travel from spinal cord into the body


define the following words
articular cartilage

to divide by cutting transversely
band or sheet of connective tissue beneath the skin that stabilizes, encloses and separates muscle and other internal organs
tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone
soft white cartilage that covers the end of the bone and helps joints move smoothly


cats - how many root for P3
canine dental records what range of numbers do you use to figure out how bad a tooth is

0 (perfect) - 4 (loose, gingivitis, advanced periodontal disease)


what measurement (mm) is okay for gingival sulcus to be
List ways you would remove a molar tooth in a horse

1) through sinus - however get issues with exposing that area as have to cut through
2) levers - lever between two adjacent teeth and lever out with twisting action - molar extractors


how does the saliva from the sublingual gland and parotid gland differ in look and function and how much secreted in sheep daily

sublingual - viscus, opaque, neutral pH, helps with swallowing and has glycoproteins that stick together making mucus sticky and slippery - 400-800ml
parotid - pH is around 8.5 due to bicarbonate that acts as a buffer to neutralise the fatty acid in the rumen
Both are recycled from the rumen back into the mouth and around again - 3-8 liters


intralobular ducts structure and where are they located
normal body temperature of a cow

2 layers of cubodial epithelium - inside the ducts
38.6 degrees


where do the two lobes of the pancreas sit

on the inside of the cranial duodenal flexure


what were the problems with misty dentition and results

- Significant wear on the incisors (upper and lower arcade)
- Malocclusion of the incisors
Possible problems from this - will still be able to prehend the food as use lips so probably not causing the loss of weight
- Molars and premolars are quite sharp and form a "wave mouth" so there is malocclusion of these cheek teeth.
- Also one cheek tooth has been removed which prevents the opposite cheek tooth being worn down further adding to the malocclusion
Possible problems from this - cannot grind the food down into small enough particle sizes for the microbes to break down into nutrients


treatment of misty's choke

- Give Buscopan which is a muscle relaxant to allow easy access of the tube down the oesophagus
- Pass a nasogastric tube until hit blockage then pour warm water down the pipe, suck back up, pour water down until the obstruction has moved on
○ Tube passed through the nose and not the mouth because the epiglottis and soft palate in the horse has lots of muscles holding together so in order to gain easier access to the oesophagus move through the nose
- Once obstruction leaves should be able to move the tube into the stomach


mechanism of Misty's choke

- Prehension not a massive issue
1) Due to the malocclusion of her premolars and molars she is unable to effectively break down the feed into smaller particles
2) Therefore the particles of feed are too big for swallowing and build up into a ball of grass that got lodged in the oesophagus hiatus (narrowing of oesophagus at the level of the diaphragm)
3) This lead to choke and prevented food, water or saliva from moving down the oesophagus therefore the saliva was leaving from her nose


why is choke an emergency

1) Dehydration - due to massive loss of fluids (saliva) from the nose as it cannot move into the stomach and be recycled
2) Aspiration of fluid into the lungs - which would lead to difficulty in breathing and possible aspiration pneumonia


how does gas get into dog stomach and why in gastric dilation volvulus is there a build up of gas

1) There is a little bit of gas build up in the stomach naturally via the chemical digestion of food
2) Dogs can gulp and swallow air
Why is there a build-up of gas
- As the cardia is blocked the oesophagus is blocked preventing the gas from being eructated


treatment options for gastric dilation volvulus

1st - try to pass through stomach tube and if doesn't go in then already twisted
2nd - use a needle to relieve gas and give fluids
3rd - surgery - has to be done in order for the dog to survive
- Suture the stomach onto the abdomen wall via the stomach muscle using a technique called belt-loop gastropexy


Why was metoclopramide, pantoprazole and maropitant given to Jack (gastric dilation volvulus)

Metoclopramide - increase gastric emptying and restore normal motility
Pantoprazole - Proton pump inhibitor irreversibly binds to the proton pump preventing secretion of HCl from the parietal cell
Maropitant - targets NK1 receptors in both CTZ (chemoreceptor trigger zone) and vomiting centre so stops vomiting


main reason for death for animals with gastric dilation volvulus

cardiovascular collapse due to large blood vessels coming out of the stomach - caudal vena cava blood going back to the heart so when squashed then blood not getting back to the heart so decrease blood pressure leading to increase heart rate but cannot get cardiac output needed to supply body of oxygen.


How is the spleen and liver affected with gastric dilation volvulus

Spleen - is tethered to the stomach and shares its blood supply - so it get drags around and blood vessels again stretched and spleen may die off
Liver - can also be affected as shares blood supply with stomach and spleen however not as attached to the stomach as the spleen so won't be twisted and moved in the process


possible post-surgery problems from gastric dilation volvulus

1) Higher chance of gastric dilation volvulus occurring again
2) Reduce motility in the stomach due to damage to the stomach lining - also parts of the stomach may have died off so may have to remove in surgery which can cause future problems
3) Release of toxins from the stomach into the bloodstream as the stomach lining can be damaged pre or during surgery - also as the stomach twist can twist and tear blood vessels


Clinical signs of localized peritonitis

vomiting all day - diarrhoea - soft watery faeces, listless, not drinking much water but dehydrated found out through capillary refill test


haematology and biochemistry, radiograph, ultrasound signs for localized peritonitis

WCC - very high - inflammation
Band neutrophil - toxic change
seg neutrophil - immature neutrophils having to be deployed to the tissues so excess stimuli
lipaemia in serum - fatty
no obvious obstruction
swollen pancreas - ultrasound


why is dog with localized peritonitis vomiting and why soft faeces

1) Severe necrosis enzymes in bloodstream - can stimuli vomiting
2) Duodenum inflammation as close proximity to pancreas - sensory nerve endings to the vomiting region of the brain
osmotic diarrhoea (increase in solutes within the bowel) due to fermentation of undigested fats and sugars from microflora in the distal ileum and colon leading to release of osmotically active particles


short and long term treatments

Anti-emetics, pain relief
IV fluids - not subcanteous as blood flow to the periphery is low (vasoconstriction) so sit under the skin and won't be absorbed
Diet - withhold food until the vomiting ceases - don't want to stimulate the pancreas at the moment
long term
Avoid high fat - low fat digestible diet, pancreatic enzyme supplement, antibiotics possibly - bacterial overgrowth causing severe diarrhoea not continual just a course
Expensive treatment with diet, enzymes and antibiotics


Long terms problems for dog with localized peritonitis

1) Watch out for weight loss and drinking and urinating lots (diabetes) so get monthly check up to ensure sequels don’t occur
2) Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency - lost over 90% of the pancreas tissue - not enough enzymes to break down the food
TLI - expect low levels - Trypsin like immunoreactivity test
3) bacterial overgrowth causing severe diarrhoea


Lymphoma how cause weight loss

1) Epithelial infiltration of lymphocytes - increase diffusion distance - malabsorption - weight loss
2) base of the crypts are infiltrated with lymphocytes - interfere with replication of crypt cells - not enough covering for the villi so they shrink - decrease surface area on the villi - decrease absorption - malabsorption


lymphoma how cause vomiting

1) Small intestine has nerves within plexus in submucosa and mucosa linked to vagal afferents to the vomiting centre of the brain - efferent nerves away from vomiting centre coordinates vomiting
2) Problem with gastric emptying due to loss of motility so decrease gastric emptying


lymphoma how cause diarrhoea

1) Osmotic diarrhoea from decrease gastric emptying
2) Nutrients - bacterial overgrowth - increase diarrhoea from time to time
3) Abnormal motility - lymphocytes irritate smooth muscle by invading or releasing factors- may increase or decrease motility


Why is T cell lymphoma worse than B cell in terms of prognoses and what is the treatment

- T cell intestinal lymphoma involves slower replication of lymphocytes than what is needed for effective chemotherapy treatment
- Provide supportive treatment such as regular injections of Vitamin B12 to address absorption problems from the ileum. Also feed regular small meals of a highly digestible diet as absorption and motility in the gut is decreased


functional or physcial bloackage why increase in fluid and risk for the horse

- massive amount of secretions daily that cannot be recycled in the large intestine - get cardiovascular collapse as lack of circulation blood volume
- risks are dehydration and gastric rupture within a few hours - emergency


how to treat functional ileus and recovery

1) Pass tube through the nose and leave there and siphon out every few hours
2) IV fluids - counteract the dehydration - 20L to begin with and ongoing maintenance
3) Laparotomy - surgery to see if it is a physical or functional obstruction generally hard to tell beforehand which one it is
4) Functional obstruction manage with medication
- Antibiotics not always given - complication - cause diarrhoea
- Pro-kinetics once sure stomach wont rupture - complication is possible rupture
- Analgesia -
5) Don’t want the horse to eat anything while refluxing so muzzle the horse
- recover motility after a few days to a week