Flashcards in central and peripheral nervous systems Deck (115)
extra- and intracellular SODIUM
shake the salt shaker 140 times but only 14 grains of salt came out
extra- and intracellular POTASSIUM
ate four bananas and got 140% of my daily potassium
extra- and intracellular CALCIUM
even if you drank 2.4 glasses of milk a day, it's still only 1/10,000 of how much a dairy cow can produce
extra- and intracellular MAGNESIUM
if you drank 1.2 bottles of mag citrate, you would have to go to the bathroom 58 times
extra- and intracellular CHLORIDE
chloride reminds me of chlorine and hot tubs, if you jumped into a hot tub that was 103* F it could give you 4th degree burns
extra- and intracellular PHOSPHATE
You've heard of adenosine triphosphate, but have you heard of adenosine QUADRUPLEphosphate?? It's like supercharged ATP and has 75 calories in each phosphate bond.
extra- and intracellular GLUCOSE
Glucose makes me think of checking my patient's blood sugar, and if it was 90 I would give them 0 units of insulin because that's a perfect BG.
extra- and intracellular pO2 partial pressure OXYGEN
If you take 35 to 40 BIG breaths it could raise you oxygen sats about 20 percent.
extra- and intracellular pCO2 partial pressure CARBON DIOXIDE
Your carbon dioxide levels are highest if you hold your breath for 40-50 seconds.
extra- and intracellular AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids makes me think of protein which can be found in steaks, so if you ate 30 steaks a day you'd probably gain 200 pounds of muscle.
hyperK causes __polarization and makes the resting membrane potential __ negative
(because the extra- and intracellular K conc. are more similar than usual the rate of diffusion slows = slow depolarization, decreased amplitude, and rapid repolarization)
hypoK causes __polarization and makes the resting membrane potential __ negative
(because the K gradient is increased, the rate of diffusion is fast. A larger than normal stimulus is needed, but once threshold is reached it will be a fast depolarization, and a slow repolarization)
hypoCalcemia moves threshold __ the RMP, thus __ to open Na+ channels and __ to depolarize, results in irritability.
threshold CLOSER to RMP
EASIER to open Na+ channels
EASIER to depolarize
hyperCalcemia moves threshold __ the RMP, thus __ to open Na+ channels and __ to depolarize, results in a quiet, sleepy, slow, comatose, bradycardic patient.
threshold FURTHER from RMP
HARD to open Na+ channels
HARD to depolarize
__ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves
two types of EFFERENT
somatic- muscle and motor
autonomic- unconscious (cardiac, GI)
two types of AUTONOMIC
the nerve cell body has a __ nucleus, __ mitochondria, __ ribosomes, __ apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum to produce lots of ATP and neurotransmitters
what is special about dendrites?
very small number of voltage gated sodium channels, so conduct action potentials VERY POORLY, conduct via ELECTROTONIC CONDUCTION DIRECTLY THROUGH CYTOPLASM
how many axons can a cell have?
how many dendrites can a cell have?
dendrites = 0,1, or more
what is electrotonic conduction
conduction of an action potential directly through the cytoplasm
the larger the diameter of the nerve cell body, the __ resistance to electrical flow
what is special about axons?
LOTS of voltage gated sodium channels, rapidly conduct action potentials
schwann cells form myelin in the __, while oligodendrocytes form myelin in the __
schwann = peripheral nervous system
oligodendrocytes = central nervous system
what is a collateral axon
an axon that divides off of a main axon
what is telopendria?
termination of an axon, the tip of which is the terminal button where neurotransmitters are released
are nodes of ranvier covered in myelin
nope, that's why action potentials can leap, jump, dance, saltatory conduction from node to node
multipolar neurons have __ dendrite(s) and one axon, and can be found in the __, __, and __ motor fibers
brain, spinal cord, and somatic motor neurons
bipolar neurons have _ dendrite(s) and one axon, and can be found in the __ neurons, eg. cranial nerves __ and __
sensory neurons in cranial nerves one and two (olfactory and optic)