central and peripheral nervous systems Flashcards Preview

ANAP 510 Lancaster qtr 3 > central and peripheral nervous systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in central and peripheral nervous systems Deck (115)
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1

extra- and intracellular SODIUM

140/14
shake the salt shaker 140 times but only 14 grains of salt came out

2

extra- and intracellular POTASSIUM

4/140
ate four bananas and got 140% of my daily potassium

3

extra- and intracellular CALCIUM

2.4/0.0001
even if you drank 2.4 glasses of milk a day, it's still only 1/10,000 of how much a dairy cow can produce

4

extra- and intracellular MAGNESIUM

1.2/58
if you drank 1.2 bottles of mag citrate, you would have to go to the bathroom 58 times

5

extra- and intracellular CHLORIDE

103/4
chloride reminds me of chlorine and hot tubs, if you jumped into a hot tub that was 103* F it could give you 4th degree burns

6

extra- and intracellular PHOSPHATE

4/75
You've heard of adenosine triphosphate, but have you heard of adenosine QUADRUPLEphosphate?? It's like supercharged ATP and has 75 calories in each phosphate bond.

7

extra- and intracellular GLUCOSE

90/0-20
Glucose makes me think of checking my patient's blood sugar, and if it was 90 I would give them 0 units of insulin because that's a perfect BG.

8

extra- and intracellular pO2 partial pressure OXYGEN

35-40/~20 mmHg
If you take 35 to 40 BIG breaths it could raise you oxygen sats about 20 percent.

9

extra- and intracellular pCO2 partial pressure CARBON DIOXIDE

40-45/~45-50 mmHg
Your carbon dioxide levels are highest if you hold your breath for 40-50 seconds.

10

extra- and intracellular AMINO ACIDS

30/200 mg/dL
Amino acids makes me think of protein which can be found in steaks, so if you ate 30 steaks a day you'd probably gain 200 pounds of muscle.

11

hyperK causes __polarization and makes the resting membrane potential __ negative
(because the extra- and intracellular K conc. are more similar than usual the rate of diffusion slows = slow depolarization, decreased amplitude, and rapid repolarization)

hyperK
hypo-polarization
less negative

12

hypoK causes __polarization and makes the resting membrane potential __ negative
(because the K gradient is increased, the rate of diffusion is fast. A larger than normal stimulus is needed, but once threshold is reached it will be a fast depolarization, and a slow repolarization)

hypoK
hyper-polarized
more negative

13

hypoCalcemia moves threshold __ the RMP, thus __ to open Na+ channels and __ to depolarize, results in irritability.

threshold CLOSER to RMP
EASIER to open Na+ channels
EASIER to depolarize

14

hyperCalcemia moves threshold __ the RMP, thus __ to open Na+ channels and __ to depolarize, results in a quiet, sleepy, slow, comatose, bradycardic patient.

threshold FURTHER from RMP
HARD to open Na+ channels
HARD to depolarize

15

__ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves

12
31

16

two types of EFFERENT

somatic- muscle and motor
autonomic- unconscious (cardiac, GI)

17

two types of AUTONOMIC

sympathetic
parasympathetic

18

the nerve cell body has a __ nucleus, __ mitochondria, __ ribosomes, __ apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum to produce lots of ATP and neurotransmitters

large nucleus
many mitochondria
many ribosomes
golgi apparatus

19

what is special about dendrites?

very small number of voltage gated sodium channels, so conduct action potentials VERY POORLY, conduct via ELECTROTONIC CONDUCTION DIRECTLY THROUGH CYTOPLASM

20

how many axons can a cell have?
how many dendrites can a cell have?

axons= one
dendrites = 0,1, or more

21

what is electrotonic conduction

conduction of an action potential directly through the cytoplasm

22

the larger the diameter of the nerve cell body, the __ resistance to electrical flow

less

23

what is special about axons?

LOTS of voltage gated sodium channels, rapidly conduct action potentials

24

schwann cells form myelin in the __, while oligodendrocytes form myelin in the __

schwann = peripheral nervous system
oligodendrocytes = central nervous system

25

what is a collateral axon

an axon that divides off of a main axon

26

what is telopendria?

termination of an axon, the tip of which is the terminal button where neurotransmitters are released

27

are nodes of ranvier covered in myelin

nope, that's why action potentials can leap, jump, dance, saltatory conduction from node to node

28

multipolar neurons have __ dendrite(s) and one axon, and can be found in the __, __, and __ motor fibers

many dendrites
brain, spinal cord, and somatic motor neurons

29

bipolar neurons have _ dendrite(s) and one axon, and can be found in the __ neurons, eg. cranial nerves __ and __

one dendrite
sensory neurons in cranial nerves one and two (olfactory and optic)

30

unipolar neurons have __ dendrite(s) and one axon, and are found in all __ neurons besides for CN 1 and 2

no dendrites
all sensory neurons except for CN 1 and 2

notability the impulse BYPASSES the cell body