Flashcards in CF04, FULL RANGE LEADERSHIP Deck (37):
Explain the trait's theory of leadership:
Referred to as “The Great Man (or Woman) Theory,” one’s leadership effectiveness was said to be influenced by their intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability.
Explain the skill's theory of leadership:
(emotional awareness and control are essential to leadership effectiveness): emotional connection and social comfort between leader and follower are key to leadership effectiveness.
Explain the Contingency theory of leadership:
match leaders to the appropriate situation depending upon task/relationship orientation, relations with followers, task structure, and position power
Explain the situational leadership theory:
followers’ competence and confidence determines appropriate leader behavior
________________ occurs when one experiences the positive feelings a task, activity, and the effort of doing their best generates within him or her.
_________________ drives people to do things in order to attain a specific outcome (external).
Explain reinforcement in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory:
rewards a specific behavior and increases the likelihood the behavior will continue
What are the two reinforcements in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
Positive Reinforcement and negative reinforcement
What is positive reinforcement in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
involves favorable actions, results, or outcomes that a leader presents to a follower after the follower demonstrates a desired behavior.
What is negative reinforcement in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
includes the removal of unpleasant, unfavorable actions or events the follower is currently experiencing that occurs after they have displayed a desirable behavior, or taking something away that the follower thinks is ‘bad’ in order to ‘reinforce’ a behavior.
What is punishment in reards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
Punishment is where the leader presents an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in undesirable behavior.
What are the two types of punishments in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
Positive punishment and negative punishment
What is negative punishment in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
occurs when a leader removes something valued by the follower after they have demonstrated an undesirable or unacceptable behavior...taking something away to stop a behavior from occurring
What is positive punishment in regards to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory?
occurs when the leader applies or presents an unfavorable action or result to a follower who has demonstrated an undesirable behavior…adding something to stop a behavior from occurring.
What are the three needs in regards to McClelland’s Need Theory?
1. need for achievement
2. need for affiliation
3. need for power
Explain the need for achievement in regards to McClelland’s Need Theory:
is a desire where one accomplishes something difficult or masters particular objects, ideas, or tasks independently or with little help.
Explain the need for affliation in regards to McClelland’s Need Theory:
People with a high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships and wanting to be accepted and cared for.
Explain the need for power in regards to McClelland’s Need Theory:
reflects an individual’s desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. People with this need prefer to work and consider discipline and self-respect as priorities.
What are the levels of Contemporary motivation?
1. Membership Level
2. Performance Level
3. Involvement Level
Explain the membership level of Contemporary motivation:
Individuals at the membership level only give the required time to the organization. Since they depend on the organization for an income, they merely meet the set standards and nothing more.
Explain the Performance level of Contemporary motivation:
Individuals at this level understand and appreciate the rewards and benefits of doing more than those at the membership level. Here, their basic needs are still being satisfied; however, they tend to be more involved in the work center and contribute as long as leadership recognizes their contributions. They bring their complaints and problems to leadership’s attention and may offer solutions.
Explain the Involvement level of Contemporary motivation:
Individuals at this level are performing are personally satisfied with their work and feel their personal needs and desires are being met. Their motivation comes from within which enables them to produce high-quality products and services.
What are the three types of rewards that are an integral part of contemporary motivation?
1. System Level Rewards
2. Supervisory Rewards
3. Personal Rewards
What System Level Rewards in regards to contemporary motivation?
We receive system level rewards just for being a member of the organization. System level rewards are things the organization provides such as pay, training, annual leave, medical and dental benefits, etc
What Supervisory Level Rewards in regards to contemporary motivation?
Given to those who go beyond the standard, they include such things as praise, public recognition, time-off, bonus pay, promotions, special assignments, greater roles and responsibilities, etc.
What personal Level Rewards in regards to contemporary motivation?
These rewards come from within us. When we fully enjoy our work, we strive to exceed every standard and reward ourselves for a job well done.
In regards to Full Range Leadership (FRL), what is a leader is:
A leader is someone who influences others to achieve a goal.
In regards to Full Range Leadership (FRL) what is a follower:
A follower is someone who chooses to follow a leader because of the leader’s character, abilities, and vision.
In regards to Full Range Leadership (FRL) what is a situation:
A situation describes the relative circumstances, position, or context that surrounds the leaders and followers.
What are characteristics of Laissez-Faire (“Non-leadership”)?
o View the development of their subordinates as someone else’s problem
o Abandon or passes on their responsibilities to others
o Fail to respond urgently to critical situations
o Remain indifferent toward important issues
What are the characteristics of Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)
o Elects to sit back and wait for things to go wrong before taking action
o Intervenes only if standards are not being met based on in-place control measures
o Will hold subordinates accountable if they fail to meet standards
What are the two behaviors of Transactional Leadership?
Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A) and Contingent Reward
What are characteristics of Management by Active (MBE-A)?
Controls followers through forced compliance with rules, regulations, and expectations
Is more concerned with identifying problems and correcting them than trends in performance
Closely monitors performance for errors
Explain the Contingent reward style of leadership
Contingent Reward involves the constructive transaction between the leader and the follower. This transaction becomes a ‘contract’ or goal between the leader and the follower.
What are the characteristics of Contingent reward style?
o Sets goals, clarifies roles and explains expectations
o Uses extrinsic motivation to get followers to achieve goals.
o When the follower fulfills the leader’s expectations, a reward is provided to reinforce the demonstrated positive behavior.
o Actively monitors progress and provides supportive feedback
What are the characteristics of Transformational Leadership?
Offers followers a vision and inspires them to complete their mission
Inspires followers to exceed their goals
Promote positive and meaningful changes
Uses the “4 Is” to influence and “transform” others