EA01 - Introduction to Culture Flashcards Preview

ALS- Study Material (2018) > EA01 - Introduction to Culture > Flashcards

Flashcards in EA01 - Introduction to Culture Deck (40):

_________ is a shared set of traditions, belief systems, and behaviors and is shaped by many factors, including history, religion, politics, and resources (financial, informational, technological, material, energy, warfare, and human).



____________ are the most powerful or the most widely practiced cultures in a particular society, whether the society is a region or an entire country.

A) Macro-cultures
B) Micro-cultures

A) Macro-cultures


____________ are also called “subcultures.” They are described as a group of people living within a larger society who share values, beliefs, behaviors, status, or interests that are different from the macro-culture or the rest of society.

B) Micro-cultures


Define Holism:

Means that all the parts of a culture are interconnected and integrated.


A ________ is a cognitive “shortcut” that helps us organize and interpret the vast amount of information that exists in our environment.



Give an example of symbols?

Dog symbolizes loyalty in U.S. culture, for example, while a rat usually does not.


The sum of beliefs and values that people use to define and interpret the world, and their place within it. What is the term for the definition above?



Air University has defined Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) --

The ability to quickly and accurately comprehend, and then appropriately and effectively act in a culturally complex environment to achieve the desired effect.


_____________ is understanding basic concepts like culture, relativism, ethnocentrism, and holism.

A) Culture-general knowledge
B) Culture-specific education

A) Culture-general knowledge:


_____________ is An approach that emphasizes specific aspects of particular cultures, affording individuals much of the knowledge and/or skills necessary to interact more competently with individuals of other cultural backgrounds.

A) Culture-general knowledge
B) Culture-specific education

B) Culture-specific education


Define Ethnocentrism:

The human tendency to negatively judge others (cultures, behaviors, values) against our own values and beliefs.


Relativism (as an attitude):

The conviction that the beliefs and practices of others are best understood in light of the particular cultures where they are found.


Relativism (as a behavior):

Temporarily suspending one’s own culturally informed opinion and thinking about how others might interpret or value a situation.


Three specific skills that emerge as key to successful cross-cultural interactions are:

 Communicate to avoid misunderstandings;
 Negotiate to overcome differences and resolve conflicts; and
 Relate with individuals from other cultures to work effectively


_______________ is a cognitive process by which an individual is able to identify the thoughts and/or feelings of another culture.

Cultural perspective taking


Leaders at every level can develop cultural perspective taking by recognizing:

- Needs and values of individuals/groups from another culture
- Local norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors
- How people from another culture will respond to one’s own actions/comments
- The importance of norms for interaction
- How violating cultural norms can negatively impact interactions


_______________ is the visible act or consideration to act in favor of or against a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person/thing belongs, rather than on individual merit.

A) Ethnocentrism
B) Stereotypes
C) Prejudice
D) Discrimination

D) Discrimination


_____________ is the creation of an adverse or unreasonable opinion about a person or group without gathering all the facts and is usually based on deeply held beliefs.

A) Ethnocentrism
B) Stereotypes
C) Prejudice
D) Discrimination

C) Prejudice


_____________ a fixed or distorted generalization about all members of a particular group that share a particular diversity.

A) Ethnocentrism
B) Stereotypes
C) Prejudice
D) Discrimination

B) Stereotypes


_____________ judging others’ cultures against one’s own (i.e. superior/inferior)

A) Ethnocentrism
B) Stereotypes
C) Prejudice
D) Discrimination

A) Ethnocentrism


What does OODA stand for?

(Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)


The __________ step involves focused attention on your environment and gathering information through all five senses.



We begin this step by first attempting to make sense of what we are observing by categorizing (organizing) the data in a practical way that is useful to us. This is the _________ step.



In the _______ step, we consider all the courses of action developed and choose one to move forward with based on our options and understanding of the situation.



The success of the OODA Loop depends on the action(s) selected and taken. In the _____ step, you review what you have decided to do, take action, and then reflect on how you executed your decision.



What is Cross-cultural communication as?

defined as the “Knowledge, motivation, and skills to interact effectively and appropriately with members of different cultures.”


_________________ is a speaker’s implicit, internalized knowledge of the rules of their native language.

Linguistic competence


_________________ is understanding how to properly communicate in another language or culture.

Communication competence


What is the definition of Impression management?

Defined as “Deliberate and motivated self-presentation


What are the two parts of Impression Managment?

1) Projection
2) Attribution


Define Projection:

the image we want others to have of us


Define Attribution:

how others actually view us.


What are the sub-types of Attribution?

Emotion regulation, Self-monitoring, and Perceptual acuity.


_____________ is the ability to manage, modify, and use our emotions toward constructive outcomes. Nonverbal communication scholars describe it as the most important predictor of cross-cultural adjustment and adaptation.

Emotion regulation


_____________ is our ability to detect appropriateness of our social behaviors and self-presentation in response to situational constraints and to adjust our behaviors to fit the situation.



____________ is the ability to perceive a communication situation accurately. It involves attentiveness to both verbal and nonverbal elements of a conversation and takes into consideration the importance of context.

Perceptual acuity


Individuals who are high self-monitors tend to

more effective in foreign cultures because a high self-monitor tends to read the social situation first and then present an appropriate response, as opposed to simply presenting a consistent image of self in every situation.


Which is an example of a high self-monitor?

A) "Who does this situation want me to be? How can I be that person?"

B) "Who am I and how can I be me in this situation?”

A) "Who does this situation want me to be? How can I be that person?"


What are the patterns of Low-Context Communication (LCC)?

(Found in such countries as Germany, U.S., Sweden):

1. Individualistic values
2. Linear logic
3. Direct verbal style
4. Matter-of-fact tone
5. Informal verbal style
6. Function of communication is to convey information


What are the patterns of High-Context Communication (HCC)?

(Found in such countries as Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Nigeria, Mexico)

1. Collectivistic values (hierarchy and priority of the group)
2. Communication functions as a social lubricant
3. Indirect/allusive verbal style
4. A relationship is more important than the message