Flashcards in Ch 1 & 2 Deck (86):
People (mostly women) who wanted women to have voting rights
Belief that one's ethnic group is more superior than others
Fee that Chinese immigrants had to pay under the Chinese Immigration Act. This was to discourage Chinese people from coming to Canada. The fee started at $50 in 1885, then raised to $100 in 1900, and then to $500 in 1903.
It was later replaced by the Chinese Exclusion Act on July 1, 1923, which tried to stop Chinese immigration altogether.
A ship that carried mostly Sikhs in summer 1914. It was forced to return to India because there was a virtual ban on East Indian immigration.
Law of Continuous Passage
Law stating that immigrants have to come to Canada directly from their own country; they can't stop in other countries in the journey.
This was to prevent immigration from undesirable places.
(Africa, the Mediterranean, India, etc. )
Force one to adapt to another culture; used on Natives by sending children to residential schools
Schools for Aboriginal children run by the churches in order to assimilate them; the conditions were often bad
An angry group of whites attacked stores and homes owned by Chinese/Japanese immigrants in Vancouver. This resulted in severe restrictions on Japanese immigration.
War Measures Act
●granted the Canadian government the authority to do everything necessary "for the security, defense, peace, order, and welfare of Canada"
●government could intervene directly in the economy of the country and control transportation, manufacturing, trade and agricultural production
●government could strip ordinary Canadians of their civil liberties
●mails could be censored
●habeas corpus was suspended so police had the power to detain people without laying charges
●anyone suspected of being an enemy alien or a threat to the government could be imprisoned, or deported, or both
The right of a person under arrest to be brought before a judge to determine the lawfulness of the arrest
Sense of patriotism to one's country
1. a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy, military force or other means.
2. controlling lands from home as colonies and building an empire.
●a formal agreement or treaty between nations to support each other (ie. in the event of an invasion)
●some countries had formed alliances in order to reduce vulnerability to attack: the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.
●acted as a deterrent to war in the short term, but did not stop the massive build-up of armies and weapons/armaments
Massive build-up in armaments and armies that was taking place in Europe during World War I
Britain, France, Russia; later became the Allied Powers
Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary; later became the Central Powers
Originally the Triple Alliance; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
Allies (Allied Powers)
Originally the Triple Entente; consisted of Britain, France, Russia and Italy
Canadian Expeditionary Force; army that was formed from Canadian volunteers
a prison camp for the confinement of enemy aliens, prisoners of war, political prisoners, etc.
1. People more interested in making money than in producing quality goods
2. People who sell low quality items for a much higher price than it is worth. They most likely underpay their employees as well. They make huge profits.
In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, citizen, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict with and who are liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed.
ie. the Germans-Canadians
Prohibition is the act of prohibiting the manufacturing, storage in barrels, bottles, transportation and sale of alcohol including alcoholic beverages.
Conditions in the Trenches
●trenches were cold/damp in winter; often filled with rain
●muddy trenches were overrun by rats
●soldiers’ clothes were infected with lice
●many soldiers developed trench foot
-painful condition; feet swell up and turn black
●injured legs may require amputation because medical supplies were limited and repair was not possible
many soldiers were left to die
No Man's Land
●land between two trenches/barbed wires on both sides
●many people were left to die here
Compulsory enlistment for military service
League of Nations
●the brainchild of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
●it was established by the Treaty of Versailles
●made up of many nations throughout the world
●based on the principle of collective security
-if one member state of the League came under attack, all members were to cooperate in suppressing the aggressor
●idea of a League of Nations was not welcomed by the great powers; Britain and France wanted the freedom to pursue their imperialistic ambitions.
●required all nations to cooperate with each other
-League of Nations could pose economic sanctions against the an aggressive nation, but could not enforce its decisions because they had no military force
●America refused to join, even though their president was the one who founded it.
-President wanted to join, but had powerful opponents who rejected the idea.
-President had a stroke during his campaign, so the U.S. did not end up joining the League.
Treaty of Versailles
A document that set out the terms of the peace agreement, signed in 1919
Reparation terms were harsh and the guilt clause angered the Germans
●under-sea boats; submarines used by Germany to sink many Allied ships with torpedoes, (cigar-shaped bomb driven by a propellor)
●ran on Diesel engines and travelled faster on the surface than most ships
●a British ship holding American passengers sunk by German U-boats in 1915
●caused angry mobs to attack innocent German businesses in several Canadian cities
●the sinking of this ship and other neutral ships angered the United States and eventually brought them into the war in 1917
Bonds that Canadians could cash in, with interest, when the war is over; helps the fund the war
Appear in a variety of media: films, magazine articles, radio programs, political speeches, and posters; encouraged people to join the army, buy savings bonds, use less fuel, eat less meat and support the government in whatever way necessary
People who did not believe in the war on religious grounds
A coalition government formed by conservatives and English liberals; propose conscription; leader was Borden
Military Voters Act
An act that allowed men and women serving overseas to vote
Military Service Act
An act that made enlistment compulsory. At first, the act allowed exceptions for the disabled, the clergy, those with essential jobs/special skills, and conscientious objectors.
Wartime Elections Act
An act that gave the vote to all Canadian women directly related to servicemen; cancelled the vote to all conscientious objectors and immigrants ho had come from enemy countries in the last fifteen years
The principle that if one member state of the League came under attack, all members were to cooperate in suppressing the aggressor; the League of Nations was based on the principle
1. action by one or more states toward another state calculated to force it to comply with legal obligations.
2. Economic sanction is the restriction of trade to a certain nation
3. Punishments put on another group (condemnation, economic sanctions, military sanctions)
A truce that ended the war at 11 a.m. November 11, 1918
●a Belgian city, located in the Flanders district
●on April 22 and April 24 of 1915, Germans used chlorine gas despite the fact that the use of gas for military purposes was outlawed in 1907 by international agreement
●many men suffocated or choked to death
●over the course of a month, neither side gained much advantage in the fields of Flanders
●6000 Canadians were killed, wounded, or captured
●in July 1916, British and French armies launched a massive attack near Somme River, France, under the command of General Douglas Haig
-Haig was a veteran of cavalry warfare and insisted on using strategies that had worked in previous wars; these strategies were useless in the trench warfare
●British and French troops were effortlessly killed by the German machine guns.
●almost 85% of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment were killed or wounded within half an hour (over 700 men including all officers)
●battle ended in November 1916 with over a million casualties; almost equal numbers lost on both sides
-despite this, Haig claimed victory
-almost 24,000 Canadians were casualties; many soldiers were badly shaken, having witnessed the slaughter
●the Germans had controlled Vimy Ridge, a strategically important area of land in northern France since 1914
-French tried 3 times to regain Vimy, but they were unsuccessful
●late in 1916, Canadian troops were chosen to lead a new assault under the command of General Julian Byng
-General Julian Byng was a popular British officer, later appointed as a governor general of Canada.
●from the west side of the ridge, Canadian troops bombarded German positions for over a month
●meanwhile, sappers (army engineers) constructed tunnels to move troops secretly to forward positions
●on April 10, Canadians captured Hill 145, the highest point on the ridge, and by April 12, they had taken “the pimple,” the last German position
●over 3500 men were killed and another 7000 wounded
●this victory marked a Canadian milestone and brought great pride to the Canadians
●General Arthur Currie was the first Canadian appointed to command Canada’s troops
-replacement for Byng, who was promoted after his success at Vimy
-Currie brought an increasingly independent Canadian point of view to the British war effort
-Currie still took orders from General Haig
●in 1917, Currie and the CEF were called upon to retake Passchendaele Ridge in Belgium
-it had little strategic value: massive shell craters from earlier assaults and the heavy autumn rains turned it into a quagmire
-General Haig was determined to take this despite Currie’s argument against it
●the Allies won the battle at Passchendaele, but the “victory” cost over 15,000 Canadian lives and nearly half a million soldiers from both sides
A deadly influenza virus (known as the Spanish Flu) swept across Europe; killed millions and many returning soldiers carried the virus to North America; youth people were especially susceptible to the virus
December 6th, 1917, a French ship (Mont-Blanc) and a Norwegian vessel (Imo) collided. The collision was not severe, but caused the Mont-Blanc to break out on fire. The passengers on the ship escaped via lifeboats and took refuge on the Dartmouth shore nearby, believing that the ship would explode immediately. Instead, the ship continued to burn for 20 minutes and drifted before resting against Pier 6 in the Richmond district. The ship drew lots of attention and spectators. Around 9:05 a.m., the Mont-Blanc exploded, killing people nearby and destroying churches, houses, schools, factories, docks and ships.
In what order were the battles fought?
Ypres, Somme, Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele
What provoked the start of WWI?
●Franz Ferdinand, Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated by the Black Hand on June 28, 1914. He was visiting Bosnia which belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but was claimed by Serbia.
●There were many background causes leading up the assassination, including nationalism, the alliance system, imperalism, and militarism.
●Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and, because of the alliance system, many other nations ended up joining the war.
How did the war affect Canadian economy?
● Canada was in a recession before the war but got out of it after
● Canada was in debt
○ Victory Bonds.
○ Loans (mainly from the United States)
● Income Tax introduced
○ meant to be temporary during the war, but still exists today
● Corporate Tax increased
● farmers got record prices for crops
● rationing for civilians
● people were encouraged to grow their own foods- victory garden
● workers were making good wages because shortage of workers
○ #1 industry Imperial Munitions Board
● price of goods went up; inflation
How did the war affect Canadian society?
● Canadians were divided over conscription
○ conscription forcing people to join the military
○ French Canadians (mainly in Quebec) were upset with the Union Party (conservatives) led to regionalism
● many people killed/wounded, many died from disease
○ psychological and physical impact
● improvements in medical technology
● at first, Canadians were united
● fear of German Canadians and Austrian Canadians
○ internment camps, loss of jobs, etc.
● War Measures Act suspension of habeas corpus
● People were scared
○ didn’t trust each other and most saw war as a bad thing
● more democratic as women got more rights
How did the war affect Canadian women?
● given more rights
○ the right to vote became more politically active especially on the issue of prohibition
○ only white woman were allowed; very racist
● more women employed because most young men were sent to war or infected with Spanish Influenza
○ working outside of their job ghetto
● women became more respected
● women were nurses at the front line
Why did the U.S join the war?
The German U-Boat sank a British passenger ship Lusitania in 1915, killing American passengers; Germany decided to declare unrestricted submarine warfare again in 1917, bringing the US into the war.
Extra info: Germany also sent a telegram (known as the Zimmerman Telegram) to Mexico, promising land to Mexico if it attacks the US
What was the Schlieffen Plan? Was it successful?
Germany developed the Schlieffen Plan, a bold strategy for a two-front war; the plan was for the German army to quickly invade Belgium, then France, and capture the captial city of Paris--once this was accomplished, Germany could turn its attention to Russia; The plan was not successful as France and Britain rallied to push them back into northern France
Name the civil liberties that were threatened by the War Measures Act
● mail could be censored
● habeas corpus was suspended
● police had the power to detain people without laying charges
● anyone suspected of being an enemy alien or a threat to the government could be imprisoned, or deported, or both
● recent immigrants from Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire were treated particularly harshly under this act
● Many had to carry special identity cards and report regularly to registration officers
● many were held in isolation in internment camps
What are some new war technologies developed in World War I?
➢ field guns and cannons were developed during World War I
○ Germany’s “Big Bertha” artillery was especially powerful
○ giant guns were moved into position on railcars, and worked together in groups called batteries
○ often the guns fired shells filled with explosives and shrapnel, metal balls or fragments
➢ airplanes was first used to spy on enemy activity; later they were equipped with machine guns
➢ by 1916, armoured tanks built to protect crews as they advanced across the battlefield
○ troops could break through the protective wall of barbed wire in front of trenches
○ early tanks were crude and often got stuck in the mud, but by the end of the war, they had become a more reliable weapon
➢ Germany used dirigibles, inflatable airships, for scouting and bombing missions
○ Britain used smaller frameless dirigibles to protect ships from submarines
➢ Germany used submarines called U Boats to sink many Allied ships with torpedoes, cigar shaped bombs driven by a propeller
○ they used diesel engines and travelled faster on the surface than most ships
➢ both sides used poison gas during World War I
○ Germany was the first to use chemical warfare, releasing clouds of chlorine gas at Ypres, in 1915
○ later, both sides used phosgene gas and mustard gas
○ as the use of poisonous gas increased, troops were issued with anti gas respirators
How did the failure of the Schlieffen Plan result in a stalemate on the Western Front?
Germany troops were exhausted by the pace of the Schlieffen Plan and were pushed back into northern France, where the Germans dug a defensive line of trenches; neither side was able to make advances, yet both sides were unprepared to retreat
How was propaganda used during the war?
Government propaganda were designed to persuade people to support the war; propaganda appeared in a variety of media: films, magazine, articles, radio programs, political speeches, and posters; appealing to a sense of patriotism, propaganda encouraged people to join the army, buy savings bonds, use less fuel, eat less meat, and support the government in whatever way necessary; Propaganda is selective and it often distorts the truth
Explain how women contributed to the war effort, and describe how their status in Canadian society changed as a result
Some organized committees to send food and letters oversea; others became involved in volunteer organizations such as the Red Cross; women contributed to the labour force; it strengthened the campaign for women's suffrage
Why did Prime Minister Borden believe that conscription was necessary? Why were many people opposed to conscription?
● Prime Minister Borden was thought that conscription was necessary because there were not enough volunteers to make up for the large number of casualties.
●Many people were opposed to conscription because they were promised that there would be no conscription. As well, people had their own personal reasons.
- Conscientious objectors do not believe in war on religion grounds.
- Recent Canadian immigrants may have relatives fighting on the enemy side.
- Women may have husbands/sons who have chosen not to participate in war, and do not want them to be forced into service.
Why didn't Borden allow conscientious objectors or recent Canadian immigrants from enemy countries to vote in the 1917 election? Why did he not give the vote to all women in 1917?
Borden believed that these people would object his idea of conscription and only wanted people who were in his favour to have the right to vote (to skew the results).
● Conscientious objectors do not believe in war on religion grounds.
● Recent Canadian immigrants may have relatives fighting on the enemy side.
● Women may have husbands/sons who have chosen not to participate in war, and do not want them to be forced into service.
List the events of 1914 in chronological order
● Franz Ferdinand, Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated by a Serbian nationalist
● Germany invades Belgium and France
● Britain declares war on Germany; Canada is automatically at war
● War Measures Act is passed
List the events of 1915 in chronological order
● Canadian troops exposed to poisonous gas at Ypres, Belgium
List the events of 1916 in chronological order
● Women in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta gain the right to vote in provincial elections
● The Newfoundland Regiment almost destroyed as Battle of the Somme begins
List the events of 1917 in chronological order
● Czar Nicholas of Russia is forced to abdicate
● United States declares war on Germany
● Canadian troops capture Vimy Ridge, France
● Women in British Columbia and Ontario gain the right to vote in provincial elections
● Wartime Elections Act gives federal vote to women related to servicemen
● Borden re-elected as head of Union Government
● Canadian troops succeed in muddy battles at Passchendaele in Belgium
● Halifax is flattened by explosion of a French munitions ship in its harbour
List the events of 1918 in chronological order
● Conscription becomes mandatory
● Armistice declared on the Western Front in Europe
List the events of 1919 in chronological order
● Paris Peace Conference was held in Paris
What is the result of the Paris Peace Conference?
● Germany had to agree to war "guilt clause" meaning that the country had to accept responsibility for causing the war
● Germany had to pay war reparations totalling about $30 billion
● The map of Europe was to be redrawn, reducing Germany's territory and dividing it into two parts so that the newly independent Poland would have a corridor to the sea
● The German army was to be restricted to 100,000 men; the nation was not to be allowed U-boats or an air force
Why did Prime Minister Borden call an election? What two pieces of legislation did he pass to ensure his re-election?
● Borden called an election over the issue of conscription. In order to ensure his re-election, he passed the Military Voters Act and the Wartime Elections Act.
● The Military Voters Act was passed first, and gave the vote to both men and women who were serving overseas.
● A month later, the Wartime Elections Act gave the vote to all Canadian women directly related to servicemen. It also cancelled the vote for conscientious objectors and immigrants who had come from enemy countries within the last 15 years.
Which region in Canada greatly opposed Borden and his idea of conscription? How did they react after the Union Government won the election?
● Quebec opposed Borden and conscription.
● They were the only region in Canada to have a majority of their seats go to the Liberals rather than the Union Government.
● They continued to demonstrate against conscription after Borden's election, and protested in streets shouting "A bas Borden" meaning "Down with Borden."
● Anyone who taunted the French-Canadians for their stance on conscription had rotten vegetables and stones thrown at them.
● Anti-conscription riots began in Quebec during the Easter weekend of 1918, 4 demonstrators were shot dead by soldiers and 10 soldiers were wounded.
How did Canadians respond to the war?
●While the assassination in Bosnia was on the front-page news in Canada, few Canadians actually thought much about it.
●The prime minister was on vacation when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
●Most English-speaking Canadians were of British origin and supported the war because of their nationalism for Great Britain and the Empire.
How did the war affect the life of Canadians at home?
-hundreds of thousands of Canadians were employed in factories to fill the huge orders from England and Belgium
-production and export of Canadian goods and resources reached record highs
-government tried to pay for its contribution to the war through bonds, taxes, and loans
-Canadians were urged to buy Victory Bonds
-income tax was introduced
-Canada was forced to borrow money from other countries (mostly USA)
-shortage of men; women had to take on new roles (contributed to labour force)
-campaign for women's suffrage strengthened; the right to vote on the provincial level was given to women
Soldiers stay in trenches and rush towards the other side (and try to take down as many people as they can) when the time is right. The troops then return to the trenches and wait for refreshments
When did Britain declare war? Why?
August 4, 1914, when Germany attacked France through Belgium which was neutral. Britain was determined to protect Belgium and help France.
How did Canada end up in the war?
Britain controlled Canada's external affairs at the time of the war, so when Britain joined the war to aid Belgium, Canada was automatically at war as well.
How many Canadians went to war, in total? How many joined the Royal Navy?
600,000 Canadians went to war.
9,000 joined the Royal Navy. They made up over 25% of the Royal Air Force.
Who was Major Billy Bishop?
A Canadian who was the third ranked air ace of the war with 72 enemy planes shot down.
How many Canadians died in the war? How many were injured?
Over 60,000 Canadians died in the war and 173,000 were wounded, mainly because they were used as "shock troops"
List the major battles and briefly outline each
1. April, 1915 at Ypres:chlorine gas is used for the first time in combat. It kills every third Canadian in this battle
2. Festubert: 2500 Canadians died in five days to gain 600 yards
3. July 1, 1916 at the Somme: 25,000 Canadians died in 141 days
4. April, 1917 at Vimy Ridge: All Canadian forces in Europe fought together. This is Canada's most famous victory. Over 3500 Canadians died. After this battle, Canadian forces were commanded by a Canadian: General Arthur Currie
5. October, 1917 at Passchendaele: Almost 16,000 Canadians died in winning a useless swamp
What does modern warfare mean?
The usage of tanks, trenches, machine guns, trenches, airplanes, and submarines; they were used for hte first time in World War I
What were the results of the Halifax Explosion?
●churches, houses, schools, factories, docks, and ships were destroyed
●1,630 homes were destroyed, 12,000 damaged
●6000 ppl were left without shelter
●hospitals treated over 4000 cases
What was the main purpose of pilots in the beginning of the war? Later on in the war?
●At the beginning of the war, pilots flew alone in biplanes for aerial reconnaissance.
○Aerial reconnaissance refers to the inspection of an area, usually to gather military information such as photographs and reports on enemy troop movements.
●It was not long before pilots on both sides were armed; they fired pistols and rifles at the enemy below.
What happened to Canadians who wanted to become pilots?
Canada did not have its own air force; Canadians who wanted to be pilots had to join the British RFC.
How did the Allies deal with the U-Boats?
The Allies eventually developed the convoy system and an underwater listening device that helped them locate and destroy Uboats
Who was Douglas Haig?
A general who commanded British and French forces in the battle of Somme. He was a veteran of cavalry warfare and insisted on using traditional strategies that were useless in the trench warfare.
Who was Julian Byng?
A popular British officer who was later appointed a governor general of Canada. He commanded Canadian troops during the battle in Vimy Ridge. He developed strategies for attack and trained the troops well.