Ch. 1: Intro to Neuroscience Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1: Intro to Neuroscience Deck (106):
1

CN XII

Hypoglossal N
Motor
Move tongue
From Medulla

2

CN XI

Spinal Accessory N
Motor
Trap/SCM
From Medulla

3

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal N
Motor/Sensory
Taste, swallow, salivation
From Medulla

4

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear N
Sensory
Hearing/balance
From Pons

5

CN VII

Facial N
Motor/Sensory
Facial Mm for expression
Salivation/tears
Taste
From Pons

6

CN VI

Abducens N
Motor
Move eye laterally
From Pons

7

CN V

Trigeminal N
Motor/Sensory
Face Sensation
Mastication Mm
From Pons

8

CN IV

Trochlear N
Motor
Move eye down and medially
From Midbrain

9

CN III

Occulomotor N
Motor
Eye movement, up/down/medially
Sympathetic: open eyelid, constrict pupil
From midbrain

10

CN II

Optic N
Sensory
Vision

11

CN I

Olfactory N
Sensory
Smell

12

Neuroscience

Science concerned with development, chemistry, structure & function & pathology of nervous system

13

Efferent

Away from core
Down and out
Motor

14

2 spinal cord functions

conduct info (brain-->body, body-->brain)
Process info (interneurons/synapses)

15

3 sections of brainstem

Medulla, pons, midbrain

16

Medulla Parts

(Olive), Pyramids

17

Spinal Horns

Made up of grey matter

Dorsal=sensory cell bodies
Anterior=motor cell bodies

18

Brainstem function

Life sustaining functions

19

Nerves originating from medulla

IX, X, XI, XII

20

Decussation

Crossing over of signals in pyramid of medulla

21

Bulge of Pons

cell connections to make copy of motor plans to send to cerebellum

22

Pyramid of Medulla

2 elongated ridges along ant midline of medulla

23

Nerves originating from Pons

V, VI, VII, VIII

24

Nerves originating from Midbrain

III, IV

25

Cerebral peduncles

-ant, top of midbrain
-bundles of white matter from cerebrum to pons
-efferent/motor

26

Superior colliculi

process visual info

27

Inferior colliculi

process auditory info

28

cerebellum hemispheres

coordinate movement of legs and arms
split by vermis

29

Choroid Plexus

group of leaky blood vessels (strainer)
interface between brain and blood

30

Foramina of Monro

(2 of them)
Canal between lateral ventricles & 3rd ventricle

31

CSF

-strained watery blood once it's filtered through the choroid plexus
-regulates extracellular environment
-physically protects the CNS

32

Lateral ventricles

(2 of them)
'C' shaped in sagittal view
butterfly shaped in coronal view

33

Ventricles

Water balloons in brain filled with CSF
2 lateral
3rd
4th

34

Central canal of spinal cord

unfilled water balloon in spinal canal that collapses during growth

35

Cerebral aqueduct

canal from 3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle

36

Foramina of Luscka (2) & Foramen of Magendie (1)

3 holes to let CSF out of brain

37

Meninges

-(Walls of water balloons in brain/spinal cord)
-connective tissue
-dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

38

Dura Mater

Toughest, outermost of the meninges
2 layers (outer and inner)

39

Tentorium Cerebelli

Inner layer of dura mater between occipital lobe and cerebellum

40

Outer Dura Mater

Toughest layer
furthest outside brain and spinal cord

41

Falx Cerebri

Inner dura mater in longitudinal fissure

42

Dural sinuses

(Gutters)
-gap in dura between inner and outer layers
-used up CSF dumps here to go back to heart

43

Arachnoid Mater

-Just inside dura mater with spiderweb projectins going to hemispheres
-CSF flows in cobwebs
-Cushion brain and spinal cord

44

Arachnoid Granulations

'Grapes' on arachnoid villi that strain used CSF into dural sinuses

45

Peripheral N Vascular Supply

Each N has a rich arterial supply

46

Anterior Spinal Artery

-On anterior midline of entire length of spinal cord
-Supplies ant 1/2 spinal canal (motor area)

47

Arachnoid Villi

(Villi=fingers)
Projections from arachnoid through dura, into the sinuses (on top are arachnoid granulations)

48

Pia mater

-innermost connective tissue layer right against brain tissue
-CSF above pia
-Keeps water out of brain

49

Vascular supply to Spinal cord

Anterior (1) and posterior (2) spinal arteries

50

Posterior Spinal Arteries

(2)
-on posterolateral spinal cord, running the entire length
-supply the posterior cord (sensory area)

51

Cerebellum Vermis

-midline of cerebellum
-help control trunk

52

Cerebrum

Folded brain matter "on top" of everything

53

Fissure

deep valley

54

Diencephalon

-Everything with "thalamus" in name
-collection of cell bodies that route sensory info

55

Sulcus

Shallow Valley

56

Gyrus

Hump between valleys

57

Parietal Lobe

Somatosensory

58

Temporal Lobe

Process auditory info

59

Limbic System

Fleeing, fighting, feeding, fornication

60

Frontal Lobe

-Motor Control
-Executive functions (planning, problem solving)

61

Occipital Lobe

process visual info

62

Afferent

Toward core
in and up
sensory

63

Limbic lobe

-Deep cortex covering midbrain, thalamus, and basal ganglia
-emotional control and emotional processing

64

Longitudinal fissure

front to back fissure between L & R hemispheres

65

Lateral Sulcus

Separates temporal lobe from parietal lobe
(inside is insular lobe)

66

Insular Lobe

Inside lateral sulcus

67

Central Sulcus

Separates frontal lobe from parietal
Separation of motor from sensory

68

Parietoccipital Sulcus

Separates parietal and occipital lobes

69

Cingulate Gyrus

(Limbic sulcus)
Separates frontal and limbic lobe

70

Postcentral Gyrus

-post to central sulcus
-somatosensory function

71

Corpus callosum

-Horizontal connections of L & R Hemispheres
-Just above thalamus and basal ganglia and below limbic lobe

72

Precentral Gyrus

-Ant to central sulcus
-Motor function

73

Connections (2)

Corpus callosum
Internal Capsule

74

Internal capsule

-Bundle of white matter connecting cerebrum to subcortical structures
-Anterior=motor
-Posterior=sensory

75

Vertebral Arteries

-From L & R subclavian Aa, through transverse foramen to brain
-gives off: ant spinal A, Post spinal Aa, post inf cerebellar Aa
-Comes together to form: basilar A

76

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar A

-From vertebral Aa
-Supply bottom, back of cerebellum

77

Anterior Inferior Cerebellar A

-From basilar A
-Supplies front bottom of cerebellum

78

Posterior Circulation

Vertebral Aa
Post inf cerebellar Aa
Basilar A
Ant Inf Cerebellar Aa
Superior Cerebellar Aa
Post Cerebral Aa

79

Superior cerebellar A

-From basilar A
-Supplies top of cerebellum

80

Posterior cerebral Aa

-2 branches where basilar A splits
-supplies post cerebral cortex--occipital lobe (some temporal)
-sends branches to midbrain

81

Internal Carotid Aa

-Through foramen lacerum to brain
-Branches into Ant and middle cerebral Aa
-Part of circle of Willis

82

Anterior Circulation

Internal carotid Aa
Ant/mid/post cerebral Aa
Circle of willis

83

Anterior Cerebral Aa

-Direct branch of internal carotid A
-Supply top front of both hemispheres (mohawk of brain)

84

Circle of Willis

Roundabout at bottom of brain where blood supplies join together side to side and front to back
Made of: ant/post cerebral Aa, Int carotid Aa, Ant/post communicating Aa

85

Anterior Communicating A

Little artery linking L & R ant cerebral Aa

86

Aa to deep structures

-branches from middle and post cerebral Aa
-ant/post choroidal Aa
-Med/lat striate Aa

87

Medial/Lateral Striate Aa

around basal ganglia

88

Posterior Communicating A

-Join L & R posteriorly
-Between internal carotid and posterior cerebral Aa

89

Ant & Post Choroidal Aa

-Deep around 1st-3rd ventricle
-Supply some of choroid plexus

90

Superior Sagittal Sinus

-sits on top of longitudinal fissure, front to back
-dumps into transverse sinus

91

Transverse Sinus

-Starts where sup & inf sagittal sinus meet and wraps toward ears, laterally
-Dumps into jugular veins

92

Inferior Sagittal Sinus

-Rides in floor of longitudinal fissure
-Dumps into transverse Sinus

93

Jugular Vv

-Take used CSF & blood from head back to heart for recirculation

94

Spinal Columns

-white matter
-dorsal=sensory
-lateral=autonomic & motor
-anterior=motor

95

3 functional divisions of brain

brainstem
limbic system
neocortex

96

tectum

4 bumps (colliculi) on back of midbrain

97

Motor Learning

repetition, with intent & results

98

CSF circulation pathway

Heart-Aorta-Carotid Aa-choroid plexus-lat ventricles-foramina of monro-3rd ventricle-cerebral aqueduct-4th ventricle-foramina of luschka-foramen of magendie-central canal of spinal cord

99

3rd ventricle

-at midline between thalami
-keeps thalami from bumping

100

4th ventricle

-sits behind pons and in front of cerebellum
-cushion between cerebellum & pons

101

Inner dura mater

inner layers of dura mater that protrude into fissures of brain (falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli)

102

Basal ganglia

-2 clusters of nerve cells at base of cerebrum that are ant and slightly lat to thalamus
-involved in motor planning

103

Basilar A

-Made of 2 vertebral Aa
-Sits on front of pons
-Supplies whole pons and part of cerebellum

104

Middle Cerebral a

-Direct branch of int carotid A
-Goes laterally from int carotid through lateral sulcus
-supplies middle outside of cerebral cortex (headphones of brain)

105

3 Major dural Sinuses

superior sagittal
inferior sagittal
transverse

106

Midbrain parts

Cerebral peduncles
Tectum