Flashcards in Ch 1 - Introduction Deck (35):
Define Sociology (SHORT ANSWER #1)
The scientific study of human social relationships, groups and societies.
Stick figure Globe
Purpose of Sociology
To understand and generate knowledge on human behavior and social relations and institutions on a larger scale
The ability to grasp the relationships between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.
Personal troubles and public issues. Poor in Liberty City
Where biography and history intesect
C. Wright Mills
Suggested the sociological imagination.
Half Marx half Weber, activist society with social responsibility.
Ability to exercise free will and make social change on any scale
Patterned social arrangements that affect agency.
Choices (agency) enabled or constrained by structure
Rules of Critical Thinking (6)
Evaluate claims with reason.
1) Be willing to ask difficult questions
2) Think logically and clear
3) Back up arguments with evidence
4) Consider bias and assumptions
5) Avoid anecdotal evidence
6) Be willing to admit if you're wrong
Development of Sociological Thinking (4)
1) Scientific Revolution: Physicial science success, so human too
2) Enlightenment: Human rights (equality) were appealing sociological traits
3) Industrialization: Overpopulation/ghettos
4) Urbanization: Flock to cities
Social physics, statistics, and dynamics.
Positivism: knowledge based off science and reasoning, everyone shares same reality. Use facts alone.
Father of Sociology
Found societal patterns in suicide (personal thing)
Social Facts: group quality, not individuals, that constrain thinking. Behavior in soc 101 vs lecture hall. Group values edu, individual goes to college
Social bonds/mechanical solidarity (UM bond, division of labor) vs organic solidarity (based off mutual dependance)
Class conflict and exploitation.
People lose creativity
Verstehen: dif groups of people perceive the world differently
Beurocracies: hierarchal authority/written rules, promote efficiency. BAD! Lose creativity.
Group quality that are external to individuals, yet constrain thinking/behavior
Religion had an influence on suicide rates. Protestant vs catholic.
Bonds that unite members
Capitalist, property owning class
The working class
Social class competition for money and power
Free market economics
economic; class divisions; One class exploits another --> this creates/defines society
Relationship between 2+ individuals
Organizations with written rules, hierarchal authority, and a paid staff intended to promote efficiency
Large scale patterns and institutions
Structural functionalism and social conflict theory
All parts of society contribute and serve a function to the entity as a whole
"What function does _______ serve for the maintenance of society?"
Domino effect if one fails
Explain society based off the conflict of social relationships
Conflict promotes change. (Haves vs. Have nots)
Symbolic Interactions (SI)
Aquire sense of who you are based of interactions with others through means of symbols. W/o interactions there is no society. Thumbs up/down. The bird etc. (shared meaning)
Labeling theory: Internalizing a label and acting that way
Must look at macro (law making group) also
Knowledge based off science and reasoning, everyone shares same reality. Use facts alone.
Group quality, not individual, that constrains thinking. Behavior in soc 101 vs lecture hall.
Group values education so the individual goes to college
Robert Park (20th Century)
"Chicago School" of sociology
"Social ills" Liberty City & Overtown, relates to structure (I95)
W.E.B. Du Bois
Double conscious: Being both black and an american citizen
Theory of deviance, manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) function distinction
Manifest function (functionalism)
Latent function (functionalism)
"Extra" benefits you get
cost to education, standardized testing etc.