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Flashcards in Ch 1 - Introduction Deck (35):
1

Define Sociology (SHORT ANSWER #1)

The scientific study of human social relationships, groups and societies.

PICTURE:
Stick figure Globe

2

Purpose of Sociology

To understand and generate knowledge on human behavior and social relations and institutions on a larger scale

3

Sociological Imagination

The ability to grasp the relationships between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.

Personal troubles and public issues. Poor in Liberty City

Where biography and history intesect

4

C. Wright Mills

Suggested the sociological imagination.

Half Marx half Weber, activist society with social responsibility.

5

Agency

Ability to exercise free will and make social change on any scale

6

Structure

Patterned social arrangements that affect agency.

Choices (agency) enabled or constrained by structure

7

Rules of Critical Thinking (6)

Evaluate claims with reason.

1) Be willing to ask difficult questions
2) Think logically and clear
3) Back up arguments with evidence
4) Consider bias and assumptions
5) Avoid anecdotal evidence
6) Be willing to admit if you're wrong

8

Development of Sociological Thinking (4)

1) Scientific Revolution: Physicial science success, so human too
2) Enlightenment: Human rights (equality) were appealing sociological traits
3) Industrialization: Overpopulation/ghettos
4) Urbanization: Flock to cities

9

Comte

Social physics, statistics, and dynamics.

Coined sociology.

Positivism: knowledge based off science and reasoning, everyone shares same reality. Use facts alone.

10

Durkheim

Father of Sociology
Found societal patterns in suicide (personal thing)

Social Facts: group quality, not individuals, that constrain thinking. Behavior in soc 101 vs lecture hall. Group values edu, individual goes to college

Social bonds/mechanical solidarity (UM bond, division of labor) vs organic solidarity (based off mutual dependance)

11

Marx

Historical materialism/feudalism
Class conflict and exploitation.
People lose creativity

12

Weber

Verstehen: dif groups of people perceive the world differently
Beurocracies: hierarchal authority/written rules, promote efficiency. BAD! Lose creativity.

13

Social Facts

Group quality that are external to individuals, yet constrain thinking/behavior

Religion had an influence on suicide rates. Protestant vs catholic.

Durkheim

14

Solidarity

Bonds that unite members

Durkheim

15

Bourgeoisie

Capitalist, property owning class

Marx

16

Proletariat

The working class

Marx

17

Class Conflict

Social class competition for money and power

Marx

18

Capitalism

Free market economics

19

Historical Materialism

Marx
economic; class divisions; One class exploits another --> this creates/defines society

20

Social Relationships

Relationship between 2+ individuals

21

Bureaucracies

Organizations with written rules, hierarchal authority, and a paid staff intended to promote efficiency

Lose creativity

22

Micro

Individual Situations

Symbolic Interactionsism

23

Macro

Large scale patterns and institutions

Structural functionalism and social conflict theory

24

Functionalism

All parts of society contribute and serve a function to the entity as a whole

"What function does _______ serve for the maintenance of society?"

Domino effect if one fails

MACROtheory

Manifest/Latent Functions

Durkheim

25

Conflict Theory

Explain society based off the conflict of social relationships

Conflict promotes change. (Haves vs. Have nots)

MACROtheory

Marx

26

Symbolic Interactions (SI)

Aquire sense of who you are based of interactions with others through means of symbols. W/o interactions there is no society. Thumbs up/down. The bird etc. (shared meaning)

Labeling theory: Internalizing a label and acting that way

microTHEORY

Must look at macro (law making group) also

27

Positivism

Knowledge based off science and reasoning, everyone shares same reality. Use facts alone.

Comte

28

Social Facts

Group quality, not individual, that constrains thinking. Behavior in soc 101 vs lecture hall.

Group values education so the individual goes to college

Durkheim

29

Robert Park (20th Century)

"Chicago School" of sociology

"Social ills" Liberty City & Overtown, relates to structure (I95)

30

W.E.B. Du Bois

Double conscious: Being both black and an american citizen

31

Merton

Theory of deviance, manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) function distinction

32

Manifest function (functionalism)

Intentional Function

33

Latent function (functionalism)

"Extra" benefits you get

34

Disfunction (functionalism)

cost to education, standardized testing etc.

35

Labeling theory (Symbolic Interactions, SI)

Internalizing a label and acting that way