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Flashcards in Ch. 10 - Interviewing Deck (81):
1

The Persuasive Interview

- persuasive interview's essential purpose is to influence how parties think, feeling and/or act.
- it's a mutual interaction in which both parties must play active and critical roles bc persuasion is done with not to another. you take part in persuasive interviews every day as a customer or salesperson, recruit or recruiter, child or parent.
- the pervasiveness or persuasion in our daily lives leads Roderick Hart to write that one must only breathe to need to know something about persuasion.

2

The Ethics of Persuasion

- ethics and persuasion are interrelated. more than 2000 yrs ago the greek theories Isocrates wrote that it is not enough to learn the mere techniques of persuasion; we must also be aware of the moral responsibilities when attempting to alter or reinforce the beliefs or behavior of others.
- his concerns about the state of ethics in ancient Greece are reflected in our twenty-first century society.
- fewer than 20% of respondents see practitioners such as lawyers, business execs, labor union leaders, stockbrokers, etc. as high or very high in ethics.
- lead David Callahan to write a book called the cheating culture: why most americans are doing wrote to get ahead.
- since the persuasive interview is a mutual activity, both parties share ethical imperatives.
- as receivers and senders of persuasion, we have the responsibility to uphold appropriate ethical standards of persuasion. in your role as a communicator and recipient of persuasive messages, ask yourself this: what ethical standards should guide my conduct in this particular case? what should i expect of others?

3

The Ethics of Persuasion:

What is Ethical?

- when do we cross ethical boundaries?
- ethical issues focus on value judgments concerning degrees of right and wrong, virtue and vice, and ethical obligations in human conduct. notice the word degrees. it's easy to agree that a person is trying to sell a fraudulent investment scheme or home repair rip-off, particularly to a vulnerable or desperate person, is unethical. other situations are not as easy. for ex., you may criticize a politician or insurance sales rep for using extreme fear appeals and then use these same appeals to persuade a friend to stop smoking or a child not to get into a car with a stranger.
- what about a "stealth strategy" in which an undercover person pretends to be a tourist, fellow student, or concerned citizen rather than an skilled persuader?
- even single, carefully selected words may tip the balance: depression for recession, socialist for government-funded institution, terrorism for all violent acts, excuse for explanation, propaganda for information
- every strategy and tactic discussion may be misused and identified as manipulative

4

The Ethics of Persuasion:

Fundamental Ethical Guidelines

- although we don't wish to force a given system of values or ethical code upon the reader, we do argue that he/she has a responsibility to form one. we believe that it's desirable both for the immediate practical reasons of self-interest and for more altruistic reasons that a person accept responsibility for what he/she does in persuasion both as receive and as a source.
- the age-old golden rule remains relevant for your ethical conduct. do unto others are you would have them do unto you.
- while it is hard to develop a code of ethics applicable to ass persuasive situation and agreeable to all, ethical communication should be fair, honest, and designed not to hurt people.
- Be Honest: most of us are basically honest and seldom tell outright lies, but we might fib a bit about missing a class or being late for work, exaggerate a little to gain approval or sympathy, or fudge on a desire or motive. if we are truly honest, we will not attempt to conceal or true motives, compromise our ideas and idea to gain an advantage, fail to divulge disbelief in what we advocate, or camouflage unwillingness to fulfill commitments and promises. how will if eel about myself after this communicate act? could i justify by act publicly if I am called on to do so? - ask yourself these two qs to assess honesty
- Be Fair: if you follow the golden rule, fairness won't be an issue. ask yourself qs that address fairness. how vulnerable is the other party bc of status differences, how serious are the possible consequences, how adequate and fair are my arguments, etc. sometimes emotional and strong disagreements are common is persuasive interviews, but unfair tactics may result in irreparable harm to this and future interactions with this party.

5

The Ethics of Persuasion:

Fundamental Ethical Guidelines
(continued)

- Be Skeptical: have a healthy trust of others, but don't be gullible. every con artist depends on your assistance and gullibility. balance your trust with skepticism, don't let greed or getting something for nothing make you a willing accomplice. be wary of simplistic assertions, claims, promises, and solutions that guarantee quick fixes and really good deals. these people succeed bc their clients ask few questions, did no research, and refuse to listen to those who preached caution.
- Be Thoughtful and Deliberate in Judgement: sometimes mere skepticism is not enough. the "buyer beware" notion of ethics, alive and well in Ponzi schemes epitomized by Madoff's ventures, places the burden of proof on you, the persuadee. both parties in the persuasive interview should ask critical qs and demand answers backed by solid evidence. listen, think, question, synthesize, and research and then decide whether or not to accept a person, idea or proposal. we are typically more interested in appearance than substance. if we like the other party who looks like us, acts like us, sounds like us, talks like us and appears to have the right connections, we assume proposals are logical and acceptable.
- Be Open-Minded: this does not mean that you don't have strong beliefs, attitudes, and values or commitments, it does mean that you do not automatically assume that persuaders of certain professions, political parties, religions, races, genders, ages, etc. are untrustworthy or trustworthy, competent/incompetent, caring/uncaring, etc. this amounts to persuader profiling. don't automatically reject or accept proposals that challenge the ways things have always been done or that appear to be new. be open to dissent and opinions of others.
- Be Responsive: provide verbal and NV feedback to other party so they can understand your needs, limitations, and perceptions of what is taking place and being agreed to. reveal what you are thinking and how you are reacting. be actively invovled in the interview from opening through close. persuasion can be seen as a transaction in which both persuaders and persuadee bear mutual responsibility to participate actively in the process.
- remember that appearance often outweighs substances and to always be open to opposing views.
- being fair is the basis to ethical persuasion.

6

Part 1: The Interviewer in the Persuasive Interview:

Selecting Interviewees

- in many persuasive situations, the interviewee is predetermined: parent, instructor, employer, member of a team, acquaintance, etc. this is the only person you must persuade bc this person along can grant a wish, solve a problem complete a task, or meet a financial need.
- in other situations you must select from among potential interviewees or locate interviewees in your university, community, city, state, or country. professional persuaders call this prospecting. start with your own network of ppl with whom you have had previous connections and have established a relationship. may be family, friends, alumni members, clients, associates, church members, customers, contributors and supporters.
- contact sources in your network who are not potential interviewees but may help you locate good prospects.
- prospecting is a number game bc you may need to locate dozens or hundreds of interviewees, but try to avoid cold calls in which you contact a list of strangers with no connection to you or one of your sources.
- all persuaders face rejection and you must learn to deal with it; see rejection as necessary evil in the process and be ready to move on from it. a quick no is often better than uncertainty or delaying tactics that result in a much later no, after you've invested time and money into a proposal.
- making an appointment doesn't mean the prospective interviewee will keep the appointment or be a good prospect. some ppl find it easier to agree to an appointment rather than saying they aren't interested.

7

Part 1: The Interviewer in the Persuasive Interview:

Selecting the Interviewees

- next step is to purge your list of prospects; quality is better than quantity. possibility of successful interview increases if your interviewee meets five criteria
1. your proposal creates or addresses a need, desire or motive for this interviewee. if there's no need or desire, there will be no persuasion
2. your proposal and you are consistent with the interviewee's values, beliefs and attitudes. lack of compatibility, trust or respect may results in failure to persuade.
3. your proposal is feasible, practical or affordable for the interviewee. possibility is critical to persuade.
4. your proposals advantages outweigh the disadvantages for interviewee. must acknowledge and neutralize stated and unstated objections.
5. there is no better course of action for interviewee. your proposal should be the best among choices.

- once you've trimmed your list of interviewees, start preparing for the interview by analyzing each prospect.

8

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Personal Characteristics

- take into consideration age, gender, race, size, health, disabilities, physical fitness, and intelligence. any one or a combination of these characteristics may affect what a person is able to do or wants to do.
- avoid all too frequent societal stereotypes such as all elderly ppl are slow and gullible, blonds are dumb, hispanics are illegal aliens, women are technically challenged, and those with poor health lead unhealthy lives.
- each one of us is a composite of personal characteristics that is impossible to stereotype. research does indicate that a level of intelligence makes interviewees less receptive to persuasion.
- highly intelligent interviewees are more influence by evidence and logical arguments and tend to be highly critical. both factors make them more difficult to persuade.

9

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Educational, Social and Economic Backgrounds

- level of education attainment may affect interviewees.
- college graduates tend to be more invovled in public affairs, the sciences, cultural activities, have good jobs with good incomes and to hold fewer stereotypes and prejudices, and also to be more critical thinkers, flexible and independent.
- socioeconomic background includes the interviewee's memberships and are important bc our attitudes are strongly influence by the groups we belong to. the more committed an interviewee is the various groups the less likely you are to persuade this person with an effort that appears to conflict with group norms
- one of two major determinants of behavior intention os the normative influence on an individuals and its importance to the individual. normative influence is a persons belief that important individuals or groups think it is advisable to perform or not perform certain behaviors. know the persons occupation, income, avocations and hobbies, superior/subordinate relationships, marital status, geographical background, dependents, work experience, their ways of viewing people, places, things, events and issues
- memberships may be powerful outside forces.

10

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Culture

- cultural differences may affect interview. western cultures tend to be "me" centered and stress the importance of individual accomplishments, leadership and accumulation of awards and things.
- Asia and similar countries are more "we" centered and stress the importance of the group or team and see those who stress self and claim individual achievement as distasteful and offensive.
- some cultures consider bribery a normal part of business, others feel that it's necessary to give gifts are part of the process.
- bargaining is a essential part of persuasion in many cultures, often preceded by a relationship-building period over dinner or tea.
- in the US 'time is money' so americans expect others to be one time. in great Britain it is considered correct to be 5-15 mins late, and in Italy a person may arrive 2 hrs late and not understand why you are upset.

11

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Values/Beliefs/Attitudes

- each culture has a set of generally accepted values - fundamental beliefs about ideal states of existence and modes of behavior that motivate ppl to think, feel or act in particular ways. values, often referred to as "hot buttons" by collect recruiters, sales reps, and politicians, are the foundations of beliefs and attitudes.
- the following scheme of values includes those central to the American value system, the hot buttons that motivate interviewees to think, feel or act in a certain way at certain times. determine which ones are most relevant to your interviewee
- Survival Values: peace and tranquility, personal attractiveness, preservation of health, safety and security
- Social Values: affection and popularity, cleanliness, conformity and imitation, generosity, patriotism and loyalty, sociality and belonging.
- Success Values: accumulation and ownership, ambition, competition, happiness, material comfort, pride, prestige and social recognition, sense of accomplishment.
- Independence Values: equity and value of the individual, freedom from authority, freedom from restraint, power and authority
- Progress Values: change and advancement, education and knowledge, efficiency and practicality, quantification, science and secular rationality.

12

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Values/Beliefs/Attitudes
(continued)

- determine which values are most relevant to this interviewee in this situation and with this issue.
- political, economic, social, historical and religious beliefs emanate from values. determine which of those beliefs relate to a topic and proposal. if equity and value of the individual are important values, an interviewee is likely to support equal rights and opportunities for women and minorities. if education is important the person is likely to support increased school funding, give to college fundraising campaigns, etc.
- attitudes are relatively enduring combinations of beliefs that predispose ppl to respond in a particular way to ppl, orgs, places, ideas, and issues. if you're a conservative, you are more likely to react predictably to thinks you consider to be liberal.
- attitudes come from beliefs that come from cherished values. determine the interviewee's probable attitude toward the need or desire you will develop and the proposal you will make.
- consider a party's probable attitudes along an imaginary scale from 1-9 with 1-3 being strongly positive, 4-6 being neutral, and 7-9 being strongly negative.
- if it's position 1 or 2, little political effort may be require. if it's on 8 or 9 than persuasion may be impossible beyond a small shift in feeling or thinking. if it's a 4-6 you should be able to alter ways of thinking, feeling or acting with good persuasive effort. this may not be the case if an interviewee is strongly committed to remaining neutral, undecided or non-committed.

13

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Values/Beliefs/Attitudes
(continued)

- persuasion theorists from Aristotle in ancient Greece to present day have claimed that the interviewee's attitude toward the interview (ethos, credibility, image) is the most important determinant of success. you must assess the interviewees attitude toward you, your profession, and the org you represent. several dimensions determine your credibility including trustworthy/safe, competent/expert, goodwill, composure, and dynamic/energetic
- think of your previous experiences with this person. if an interviewee doesn't like you, distrusts our org and/or sees your profession as dishonest, you must alter these attitudes during the interview.
- your appearance, attainments, personality, manner, composure, etc are important for maintaining high credibility.
- ppl tend to react more favorable to high credible interviewers who are similar to them in important ways and appear to share their values, beliefs, and attitudes.
- while they want interviewers to be similar to them they also expect them to be wiser, brave and more knowledgable, more experiences and more insightful.

14

Analyzing the Interviewee:

Emotions

- emotions, sometimes called feelings and passion, significantly influence how ppl think, feel and act.
- along with values, emotions are "hot buttons" you need to discover and push if you hope to persuade.
- some emotions are necessary for survival including hate, fear, anger, love and sexual attraction. others are necessary for social involvement such as pride, shame, guild, sympathy, pity, humor, joy and sadness. you must be aware of the other party's mood, why the party feels that way and how it is likely to affect the interview.
- with mood of the interviewee in mind along with topic, situation, and the purpose, determine which emotions you must appeal to in this interview.
- what then is the relationship btwn values, beliefs, attitudes and emotions in persuasive interviews?
- the process begins with values (our fundamental beliefs ab existence and behavior), which lead to specific beliefs (judgements ab what is probably true or believable), which form attitudes (organizations of relevant beliefs that predispose us to respond in particular ways), which may result in judgement or action towards a person, place, thing, idea, proposal and act.
- specific values and emotional appeals serve as triggering devices for judgement and actions. altering or reinforcing and interviewee's thinking, feeling or acting is a complex process.

15

Analyzing the Situation:

Atmosphere

- study carefully the atmosphere in which the interview will take place. know why the interview is occurring at this time: a regularly scheduled event, an emergency and moment of opportunity, and major event, a routine interaction, etc.
- will the climate be hostile, friendly, ambivalent, or apathetic?
- the "why" of the interview may vary significantly btwn parties

16

Analyzing the Situation:

Timing

- timing may be critical. when is an ideal time to conduct an interview, when would it be too early or too late, what events have preceded this interview such as visits from competitors, etc.
- what events will take place following the interview, such as a competing fund-raiser, annual sale, or budget meeting?
- certain times of the year are great for some interviewers while terrible for others.
- timing may be everything

17

Analyzing the Situation:

Physical Setting

- provide for privacy and control interruptions, especially telephone calls. make an appointment if it's hard to guess how much time an interview will take.
- will you be the host of the interview/is it on your turf or in your office, are you a guest in which the interview is taking place on the interviewee's turf, or is it occurring on neutral ground such as a conference room, hotel, etc.
- if you are trying to recruit a student for your university, you might prefer to get the interviewee on campus during a beautiful fall day, etc.
- a good physical setting can go a long way

18

Analyzing the Situation:

Outside Forces

- outside influences may wage counter persuasive efforts
- organizational or professional policies may prescribe what you can and cannot do in a sales interview.
- you may be trying to convince a friend to attend your college while another college is recruiting this person with a full-ride scholarship, mom and dad want them to attend the same college they went to, etc.
- awareness of outside influences may determine how you open an interview, select appeals and evidence, develop proposals and address counterpersuasion

19

Researching the Issue:

- be the best informed and most authoritative person in each interview
- investigate all aspects of a topic, including events that may have contributed to the problem, reasons for and against change, evidence on all sides of an issue, and possible solutions.
- search for solid up-to-date info
- the interviewee can demand support, challenge assumptions, generalizations or claims and ask for documentations of a source.
- impress parties by having answers to qs and being knowledgable. try to determine what the interviewee knows about an issue and attitudes held by the interviewee towards the issue and possible solutions.
- don't overlook any potentially valuable sources of info such as the internet, emails, interviews, letters, pamphlets, surveys, unpublished studies, reports, newspapers, journals, gov. documents.
- use your own experience as research, know the sources available to interviewee.

20

Researching the Issue: Types of Evidence

- gather and use a variety of evidence to support your need and proposal. collect examples, both factual and hypothetical to illustrate your points.
- ppl like good stories that make problems real. gather stats, collect statements from knowledgable authorities, look for comparisons and contrasts btwn situations, proposals, products and services.
- locate clear and supportable definitions for key terms and concepts.
- distinguish opinion from fact
- the effect of a well supported persuasive interview last longer than a poorly supported one.

21

Planning the Interview:

Determine Your Purpose

- if you know the interviewee will be a hard sell bc of values, beliefs, and attitudes, then your purpose may be merely to influence thinking or feeling in a minor way. getting an interviewee to think about an action or to admit there is a problem may be a major success for a first interview. later you might move on to more significant change or support/action.
- in other situations you may move quickly through need and desire to solutions with a good chance of success.
- set a realistic goal for the interview. don't assume that after one interview that person is not interested or will not change. some say it may take five contacts before a sale is made so be patient

22

Planning the Interview:

Select Main Points

- don't make the need too complicated. know the strength of each point and introduce it strategically
- select reasons to establish need or desire. don't rely on a single reason bc the interviewee may see little urgency in a issue that is so simple or unidimensional or find it easy to reject or attack one point. more points also enhance the effectiveness of persuasion over time.
- six or eight points may make an interview too long and superficial as you rush through them all and may overload interview with info leading them to be confused or bored.
- after selecting 3-4 points, determine the strength of each for the situation and this will help determine the order in which you present the points.
- if there is a chance of running out of time or being rushed, present the strongest point first.

23

Planning the Interview:

Develop Main Points

- develop each point into what the interviewee will see as valid and acceptable logic. carefully craft and blend the logical and psychological.

- you can argue from accepted belief, assumption or proposition which invovled three explicitly stated or implied assertions
- all students living in apartments should have renters insurance, you live in an apartment, point is you should have renters insurance.
- you need not state all three parts of this pattern if the interviewee is likely to provide the mission assertion or conclusion. regardless, your argument rests of the first assertion that is a critical belief, assumption or proposition. you can leave second or third assertion unstated.

- arguing from condition is based on the assertion that if something does or does not happen, something else will or will not happen.
- if you continue to drink and drive you are going to lose your license.
- you're going to continue drinking and driving
- you're going to lose your license.
- weigh conditions carefully and be able to support them effectively. as with arguing from accepted belief, you may invite the interviewee to fill in a missing part or parts.

24

Planning the Interview:

Develop Main Points
(continued)

- arguing from two choices is based on the assertion that there are only two possible proposals or course of action. you delete one by establishing that it will not work or resolve a problem, and conclude the obvious.
- you can take the p lane or drive to your interview in Philadelphia
- driving the 700 miles to Philadelphia will require you to miss the final exam in Psychology 495
- point: you should fly to Philadelphia
- the argument rests on being able to limit the choices and convincing the interviewee that one is unacceptable so yours is the only remaining.

- arguing from example leads to a generalization about a while class of people, places, things, or ideas from a sample of this class. for instance, an interviewer attempting to persuade a university administrator of the dangers of binge drinking on campus might use this argument:
- sample: in a recent survey of college students it was discovered that 69% of 500 respondents admitted to binge drinking
- point: the majority of students take part in binge drinking.
- your evidence must warrant your conclusion
- the quality of the sample, as in a survey interview, is critical in argument from example.

- arguing from cause-effect is related to example bc interviewers often use a sample as proof of a causal relationship. unlike the argument from example that leads to a generalization, this argument attempts to establish was caused a specific effect. for ex.:
- in a study of 100 auto accidents, police officers said that nearly a third occurred while drivers were texting, about the same as when drivers had been drinking
- point: texting while driving causes as many accidents as drinking alcohol and driving
- you must convince the other party that the evidence leads to the only or major cause of effect.

25

Planning the Interview:

Develop Main Points
(continued)

- arguing from facts reaches a point that explains best a body of facts. this his how investigators argue when attempting to explain a phenomenon
- while investigating the storm damage caused in a two county area on 6/5, we noted that the storm had moved in a nearly straight line. in open areas, there was no evidence of a twisting motion in grass and weeds. tree s and small buildings were knocked down but not twisted. no one hear the tell-tale freight train sound of a tornado
- point: it's obvious that the storm damage was the result of straight line winds and not a tornado.
- unlike argument from example, this interviewer in this case is arguing from a variety of facts, not a sample of a class of things.

- arguing from analogy occurs when you point out two things (people, places. objects, proposals, ideas) have important characteristics in common and draw a conclusion based on these similarities. for example, a coach might argue like this:
- points of comparison: like north side, west lake high has a veteran quarter back who is an excellent runner as well as a passer. their line is anchored by four seniors who are both large and fast. their pass defenders have made six interceptions this year. and they have a junior kicker who has made fields goals from as far as 46 yards
- point: West Lake High will be hard to beat, just like north side.
- the number of significant similarities are critical in developing and selling this argument.

26

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies

- once you have chosen main points and persuasive patterns, select psychological strategies to make them persuasive. a number of theories explain how you might bring about changes in thinking, feeling, and acting.
- these theories explain complex human activities through careful observation of what happens in the real world and may serve as persuasive strategies.

27

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies - Identification Theory

- Kenneth Burke, arguably the leading rhetorical theorist of the 21st century claims that you persuade by identifying with the interviewee.
- strive to establish consubstantiality (a substantial similarity) with the interviewee.
- the overlapping circles representing the interview parties in our model in ch. 2 are based on Burke's notion that to communicate or persuade, you must talk the other party's language "with speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, and ultimately identifying" your ways with theirs.

- their are several ways to identify with a person and establish common ground:
- Associating with groups to which you both belong, shared cultural heritage or regional identification, programs you both support, etc.
- Disassociating from groups, cultures, regions or programs the interviewee opposed or is distant from.
- Develop appearance and visual symbols that establish identification such as dress, hairstyle, makeup, jewelry, political buttons, religious symbols, etc. appearances are important in perceiving common ground.
- Sharing language such as jargon, slang, colloquialisms, and in-group words and phrases.
- Employing content and values important to the interviewee.
- strive for real identification, not fabrication to initiate the change you desire.

28

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies - Balance or Consistency Theory

- according this this theory, human beings strive for a harmonious existence with self (values, beliefs, and attitudes) and experience psychological discomfort (dissonance) when aspects of existence seem inconsistent or unbalanced.
- you may experience this source-proposition conflict when you like persons but detest their positions or issues or dislike persons but favor their products or services.
- you experience attitude-attitude conflict when you oppose government involvement in your life but want the government to outlaw hate speech and require prayer in public schools.
- you experience perception-perception conflict when you see Mexico as beautiful but dangerous place to vacation.
- you experience behavior-attitude conflict when you believe strongly in law and order but use a fake ID to get into bars.
- not all interviewees are happy with harmony
- an interviewer may create or resolve dissonance.
- you may create psychological discomfort (dissonance) by attacking a source or pointing out attitude, perception or behavioral conflicts. then you show how the interviewee can bring these inconsistencies into balance by providing changes in sources, attitudes, perceptions and behaviors.
- if you detect that an interviewee is experiencing psychological discomfort, you may bring about balance or consistency by helping the interviewee see no inconsistency, perceive the inconsistency as insignificant, or tolerate inconsistency.

29

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies - Inoculation Theory

- according to this theory, it is more effective to prevent undesired persuasive effects from occurring than using damage control afterwards.
- for ex., a few years ago one of the authors receive a phone call from the state police warning him of solicitors who were claiming to be representatives of state police sponsored charity for children and relating what solicitors were telling contributors
- the called hoped the preemptive call would prevent the author from being victimized and maintain the credibility of legitimate police charities
- in this strategy, you forewarn the interviewee, perhaps by exposing the interviewee to small doses of a potential persuader's language, arguments and evidence so the interviewee can resist the effort.
- or you might provide arguments and evidence the interviewee may use to mount and effective counter-effort if confronted by an interviewer against whom he or she is being immunized.
- an inoculation strategy immunizes an interviewee from future persuasions

30

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies - Induce Compliance Strategy

- according to this theory, you may change an interviewer's way of thinking, feelings or acting by inducing her or hum to engage in activities counter to values, beliefs or attitudes.
- participation in counter-activities may bring about self-persuasion
- apply enough pressure so an interviewee will comply without feeling there is no choice. feeling coerced may prevent change.
- variety of ways to induce compliance. you might induce an interviewee to espouse a belief or counter-attitude to understand or appreciate the other side of an issue, such as a liberal position of sex education or a conservative position on health care reform.
- you might induce an interviewee to take part in an unaccustomed or unattractive activity, such as going to a religious service or helping at a homeless shelter
- you might induce an interviewee to play an opposite role, such as a superior instead of subordinate, teacher instead of student, parent instead of child
- you might induce a party to act to receive a reward or avoid a punishment, such as tickets to a concert or speeding ticket.
- there are many ways to trigger self-persuasion

31

Planning the Interview:

Select Strategies - Psychological Reactance Theory

- according to this theory, ppl react negatively when someone threatens to restrict a behavior they want to engage in. they may value the restricted behavior more and want to engage in it more frequently
- people may devalue alternatives bc they feel they are truck with them and may resent the restricting agent.
- organizations produce limited editions of books, stamps, coins and cars to enhance demand for them.
- tickets to NCAA basketball final four are of great value bc they are scarce.
- interviewees may be less in favor of giving to the college development fund or joining their athletic booster clubs if they feel they are being forced.
- whenever possible, avoid real or perceived pressure on the other party to think, feel or act differently
- make your proposal attractive, make scarcity or a deadline known without appearing to threaten, develop a serious need without excessive appeals to fear and offer choices
- restricting behavior may lead to persuasion or resentment

32

Conducting the Interview:

Opening

- be flexible, adaptable and cautious about assumptions. you are conducting an interview, not giving a speech. plan how you will involve the interviewee throughout the interview.
- your opening must gain attention and interest, establish rapport and motivate interviewee to take part. the major advantage of the interview over public or mass persuasion is the chance to tailor your message to a single party.
- adapt the opening to each interviewee and setting. don't rely on a standard/traditional formula
- when insufficient info is unavailable or you don't have the chance to study interviewee ahead of time, use the first few mins of the interview to discover how you can best adapt to this person.
- take note of dress, appearance, manner. ask a few q's designed to discover background, interests, and attitudes critical to this interview. listen to what the interviewee "says" verbally and nonverbally. if the party consists of more than one person, detect who is the leader or spokesperson
- the majority of persuasive interactions fail in the first few seconds, during the attention step in the opening, so choose your language and NV actions carefully. think of openings in sales calls made to your home and how you reacted. persuaders trying to convince you to give to a charity are often trained to recite a prescribed opening regardless of your age, gender, income, background or level of interest. you may dislike the charity; it makes no difference to the persuader.
little wonder that few of these "cold" calls succeed.
- begin with a warm greeting and use the interviewee's name if you have it. if the person is a stranger, do not make your greeting sound like a question but trying to guess their name. this suggests that you are unsure of the persons name or identity, unsure of yourself and not prepared.

33

Conducting the Interview:

Opening

- if you know the interviewee well and both the situation and your relationship warrant it, use the person's first name. as a general rule, don't greet a stranger, superior or person in a formal setting by first name or nickname unless you are asked to do so
- it may be necessary to introduce yourself (name position title background, etc), your organization (name location nature history products or services) and the purpose of the interview.
- you may begin with a sincere inquiry about family or mutual friends or small talk about weather, sports, construction or campus facilities. don't prolong the rapport stage. be conscious of the interviewee's situation and preferences.
- if the person replied immediately after the greeting "what can I do for you?" then you know this person wants to get down to business.
- cultures differ in the amount of acceptable small talk and socializing. most Americans want to get to the point and get the job done. Japanese and other cultures desire to get acquainted, to follow interaction rituals and to go slower in making commitments and decisions. do not prolong the rapport stage
- involve all members of the other party from the start so each person will play an active role throughout the interaction. American persuaders and persuadees, particularly male, tend to take turns unevenly during interactions and to speak at length during each turn. Japanese and others take turns evenly and make shorter statements.
- use the opening to create mutual interest in the interview and establish trust and degree of affection or liking between the parties. each party should understand the purpose of the interview and how they will share control.
- neither rush or prolong the opening
- reduce reticence by involving the interviewee immediately and often. the opening should be a good fit with the whole interview.
- if the opening fails, there may be no body and closing. do not use routine openings even for routine interviews.

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Conducting the Interview:

Need or Desire

- create a need or desire by developing in detail three or four points you selected in the preparation stage.
- introduce them in the order you have determined will be most effective, strongest point first or last with weaker points in the middle.

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Conducting the Interview:

Need or Desire - Develop One Point at a Time

- explain a point thoroughly. provide sufficient evidence that is factually based, authoritative, recent, and well documented.
- use a variety of evidence (examples, stories, authority, stats, comparisons, definitions) so the interviewee isn't buried under an avalanche of figures not bored with one story after another.
- incorporate the values, beliefs and attitudes important to this interviewee.

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Conducting the Interview:

Need or Desire - Encourage Interaction

- this is an interview, not a speech. you are more like to persuade someone if they are actively invovled. stress how each point affects this interviewee's needs and desires.
- do not go to your next point until there has been some sort of agreement. with one point developed and agreed upon, move to point two, three, and so on. do not rush through a point or jump to the next one if the interviewee raises objections or poses questions. move on when the interviewee seems ready to do so. be patient and persistent

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions

- although you rarely come to a persuasive interview with a schedule of questions, questions serve a variety of functions in persuasive interview.
- never tell when you can ask because this invovles the interviewee as an active participant rather than a passive participant
- ask and then listen.
- you cannot plan on a series of questions to get the job done, particularly of an interviewee sees no need, has no desire or is unaware of options
- questions play unique roles in persuasive interviews
- use questions to analyze the interviewee.

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Information-Gathering Questions

- ask questions to determine knowledge level and to draw out concerns and objections. listen carefully to responses and probe for accuracy and details. for example:

- tell me what concerns you about your liability insurance coverage?
- what do you know about the compensation programs for installing windmills on your property?
- how frequently do you travel between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia
- uses these types of questions to analyze the interviewee

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Verification Questions

- questions can clarify and verify interactions
- use reflective, mirror and clearinghouse questions to check the accuracy of assumptions, impressions, and information obtained before and during the interview.
- you may assume you have answered an objection satisfactory or gotten an agreement when you have not.
- be certain an interviewee understands what you are saying and grasps the significance of your evidence and points.
- silence on an interviewee's part can indicate confusion or disagreement as well as understanding and agreement.
- ask things like:

- Does that answer your concerns about the length of our MBA program in strategic management?
- You seem to be most concerned about scholarship money available for your daughter.
- Are we in agreement that a laptop computer would serve your needs and financial situation best?

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Encouraging Interaction Questions

- questions can stimulate interactions
- questions early in interviews warm up both parties and set the tone for the interview.
- encourage the interviewee to play and active role in the interview.
- an interviewee feels freer to ask questions and provide meaningful feedback once he or she plays an active part in the process and understands what you expect.
- use questions to discover how a quiet or noncommittal interviewee is reacting:

- how was your tour of the production facility?
- what do you think of the new ad campaign?
- what are your thoughts about the year-around school calendar?

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Attention and Interest Questions

- use questions to keep interviewees turn in and alter tow hat you are saying. they may be busy or preoccupied with other concerns and their minds may wander. interesting, challenging and though-provoking questions maintain interest and attention.

- how would you feel if your insurance company would refuse to cover your new child born with a physical problem?
- do you remember the winter of 2020 when your power went out for 6 days?
- what would you do if your company suddenly went out of business?

- questions can sustain interest and attention

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Agreement Questions

- use questions to obtain small agreements that lead to bigger agreements. getting agreement after each point leads to agreement at the end of the need so you can move effectively to establishing criteria for solutions.
- don't ask for agreement or commitment before you have developed or supported a point thoroughly
- a barrage of generalizations and claims will not prove a point or establish as need.
- use a yes-response question (often in the form of a statement) to control the interview and lead to agreement after throughly developing one or more points of small agreements.

- With the market rebounding, this is a great time to invest, don't you agree?
- I know you understand that limiting bonuses this year is the best way to meet the recession
- I'm sure you don't want to risk your child's future

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Conducting the Interview:

Questions - Objection Questions

- don't try to substitute questions or substance
- use questions to respond tactfully to objections and draw out unstated questions and objections
- get these on the table at the proper time. questions can also discover what an interviewee knows about an issue and reveal the importance or reasons behind the objections

- You can cost is a major concern in purchasing a hybrid SUV, but what would you pay over the next five years for gasoline in a standard SUV?
- You seem hesitant about your trip to China, what is your major concern?
- what info do you need to remove doubts about this proposal?

- don't ask q's prematurely that call for agreements when you have established nothing upon which to agree.
- use leading and loaded qs sparingly bc high-pressure tactics turn off interviewees.
- a series of qs are unlikely to persuade; you must present good reasons supported by info and evidence.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee

- tailor the persuasive interview to the values, beliefs and attitudes of the interviewee. determine the probably disposition of the interviewee and select appropriate tactics and strategies.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Indecisive, Uninterested Interviewees

- the interviewee may see no personal need or relevance. if an interviewee is indecisive, uninterested or uncertain, help the person see the reality and urgency of the problem, issue or need. use opening techniques to get the interviewee's attention and generate interest in the problem.
- lead off with your strongest point and provide a variety of evidence that informs and persuades. use questions to draw out feelings and perceptions and involve the interviewee.
- emphasize the urgency of the issue and the necessity of acting NOW. use moderate fear appeals to awake the interviewee to dangers to self, family or friends. appeal to values such as preservation of health, safety, security, freedom from restraint, ownership, and value of the individual. show HOW the interviewee can make a difference.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Hostile Interviewees

- don't assume there will be hostility. if an interviewee may be hostile, be sure your impression is accurate. don't mistake legitimate concerns or objections or a gruff demeanor as hostility. if a person is truly hostile, determine why and then consider a common ground approach.

- a yes-but approach: begins with areas of agreement and similarity and gradually leads into points of disagreement. it lessens hostility and disagreement later by establishing common ground early on.
- a yes-yes approach: gets an interviewee in the habit of agreeing when you reach apparent disagreements, the interviewee may be less likely to disagree.
- an implicative approach: withholds and explicit statement of purpose or intent to avoid a knee-jerk negative reaction from the interviewee. you hope the interviewee will see the implications of what you are saying, perhaps feeling they came up with the concerns and solution.

- regardless of the common ground approach, be polite, listen and avoid being defensive or angry when working with hostile interviewees.
- hostility often results from lack of info, misinformation or rumors. respond with facts, expert testimony, examples, stories and comparisons that prove, clarify and resolve issues between parties.
- be willing to accept minor points of disagreement and to admit your proposal is not perfect; no proposal is.
- employ shock-absorber phrases that reduce the stink of critical questions: "many residents I talk to feel that way, however..." "thats an excellent question but when you consider...." "I'm glad you thought of that because...."
- you must get to the point in a reasonable amount of time.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Close Minded and Authoritarian Interviewees

- this type of interviewee relies on trusted authorities and is more concerned about who supports a proposal than a proposal itself.
- facts alone, particularly statistics, will not do the job. show that the interviewee's accepted authorities support your persuasive efforts. the close-minded and authoritarian person has strong, unchangeable central values and beliefs and you must be able to identify yourself and your proposal with these values and beliefs.
- don't bypass hierarchical channels or alter prescribed methods. authoritarians react negatively to interviewers who don't belong or appear to be out of line, and may demand censure or punishment for appearing to violate accepted and valued norms.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Skeptical Interviewees

- if the person is skeptical, begin the interview by expressing some views the interviewees holds - a yes-yes or yes-but approach. maintain positive nonverbal cues such as a firm handshake, eye contact, a warm and friendly manner, and appropriate appearance and dress.
- if the interviewee feels you are young and experienced, allude tactfully to your qualifications, experience, and training and provide evidence that is substantial and authoritative.
- be well prepared and experienced without bragging
- avoid undue informality and a cocky attitude. if they see you as argumentative, avoid confrontations, attacks on the person's position and demands
- if the interviewee thinks you are a know it all, be carefully when talking about your qualifications, experience and achievements.
- if they have concerns about your org, withhold its name until you have created personal credibility
- if the name must come out early in the interview, try to improve its image by countering common misperceptions, relating how it's changed, or identifying its strengths. you may have to distance yourself from some elements or past practices of your organization.
- image or credibility may be the major cause of failure.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Shopping Around Interviewees.

- they may shop around before making a major purchase or decision and will face counter-persuasion from other interviewers. when meeting with a shopper or an undecided person, forewarn and prepare the interviewee.
- provide them with supportive arguments, evidence and responses to qs or points others are likely to raise. give small doses of the oppositions case's (inoculation theory) to show the strengths and weaknesses of both sides.
- develop a positive, factual, nonemotional approach that addresses the competition when necessary but dwells primarily on the strengths of your position and proposal.

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Conducting the Interview:

Adapting to the Interviewee: Intelligent, Educated Interviewees

- these tend to be less persuasible bc of knowledge level, critical ability and faculty for seeing the implications behind arguments and proposals. research shows that such interviewees are more likely to attend to and comprehend the message position but are less likely to yield to it. for example, they are likely to see through the good guy-bad guy approach used in many sales situations.
- when working with these interviewees, support your ideas thoroughly, develop arguments logically, and present a two-sided approach that weighs both sides of the issues. minimize emotional appeals, particularly if the person is neutral or initially disagrees with your position or proposal.
- encourage the interviewee to ask questions, raise objections and be an active participant.
- if an interviewee is of low intelligence or education, develop a simple, one sided approach to minimize confusions and maximize comprehension. a complex, two sided appraoch and intricate arguments supported by a variety of evidence may confuse them
- use examples, stories and comparisons rather than expert testimony and stats

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Conducting the Interview:

The Solution: Establishing Criteria

- when you have presented the need, summarized your main points, and gotten important agreements, you are ready for solutions.
- begin the solution phase by establishing criteria (requirements, standards, rules, norms, principles) that any solution should meet. if the interviewee is obviously ready to move into this phase of the interview before you have presented all of your points, move on.
- establish a set of criteria with the interviewee for evaluating possible solutions. this process is natural to us. for ex., when selecting a college major, you may have considered courses, core requirements, specialties, careers, faculty, availability of internships, and marketability when you graduate. in simple decisions such as selecting a place to eat, you may have criteria in mind such as type of food and drink, cost, distance, location atmosphere music etc.
- use this natural process in persuasive interviews
- as you think of criteria prior to the interview and develop them with the interviewee during the interview, realize that not all criteria are of equal importance. for ex., admissions directors at universities have found that quality of school is the most important criterion for out of state applicants while cost is number 2 or number 2 for in state students. the situation can influence the criteria
- for ex., cost may override all other criteria during an economic recession
- establishing a set of criteria with the interviewee invovles the interviewee in the process; shows that you are attempting to tailor your proposal to his or her needs, desires and capabilities, provides a smooth transition from the need to the solution; and reduces the impression that you are overly eager to sell your point. agreed-upon criteria enable you to build a foundation of agreements, provide an effective means of comparing and assessing solutions, and deals with objections.
- establishing criteria is natural but often unconscious
- all criteria are not created equally
- criteria are designed to evaluate and do persuade

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Conducting the Interview:

Considering the Solution

- present your solution in detail. don't assume the interviewee will understand the details and nature of the solution you have in mind unless this becomes clear during the interview. it's best to err on the side of too much info rather than too little.
- if you consider more than one solution, deal with one at a time. explain a solution in detail and use whatever visual aids might be available and appropriate: booklets, and brochures, drawings and diagrams, materials objets and models
- interviewees may remember only about 10 percent of what they hear but about 50 percent of what they do and 90 percent of what they both see and do
- approach the solution positively, constructively and enthusiastically. believe in what you are presenting and show it. emphasize the strengths and benefits of your proposal rather than the weakness of the competition
- avoid negative selling unless the competition forces you to do so as a matter of self-defense. the interviewee is likely to be ore interested in the advantages of your proposal than the disadvantages of another.
- help interviewees make decisions that are best for them. encourage questions and active involvement.
- use repetition, which one writer calls the heart of selling, to enhance understanding, aid memory, gain and maintain attention, and make the interviewee aware of what is most important
- educate the interviewee about options, requirements, time constraints and new features

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Conducting the Interview:

Handling Objections

- perhaps nothing seems more threatening than the though of an interviewee raising unexpected or difficult objections
- it's best to encourage the interviewee to voice objections to reveal the interviewee's concerns, fears, misunderstandings and misinformation. do not assume agreement bc the interviewee raises no questions or objections. watch for NV cues such as restlessness, fidgeting, poor eye contact, raised eyebrows, confused looks, signs of boredoms or silences.
- find out what is happening within. objections are numerous and often issues, goal, situation or interviewee specific

- PROCRASTINATION: never do today what you can put off until tomorrow
- Examples: Let me think about it. I've still got three weeks before that paper is due. My old truck is doing fine so I'll wait for a while.
- COST: that's a lot of money
- Examples: that iPhone is too expensive for me, I didn't expect remodeling to cost that much, That's pretty expensive for a two-day conference.
- TRADITION: we've always done it this way
- Examples: that's how we have always done business, we've always had our reunions there, my father chose that line of shoes when he opened business in 1924
- UNCERTAIN FUTURE: who knows what tomorrow will bring
- Examples: my job is rather iffy right now, the economy is struggling, so I'm reluctant to hire new staff, at my age, I don't buy green bananas
- NEED: what is the problem?
- Examples: we have good investments, so we don't need life insurance, the current system is working fine right now, we don't have much crime around here so we don't need an alarm system

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Conducting the Interview:

Handling Objections: How to Approach Objections

- anticipate objections and eliminate surprise. think about handling each objection as a series of steps

1. plan how to respond to reduce surprises
2. listen carefully, completely and objectively never assuming you understand the other person's point or concern until you have heard it
3. clarify the objection making sure you understand exactly what it is and its importance before you reply
4. respond appropriately, tactfully and seriously. if an objection is serious to the interviewee, it is serious.

- there are four common strategies for handling objections
1. minimize the objection
2. capitalize on the objection
3. deny an objection
4. confirm an objection

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How to Approach Objections:

1. Minimize the Objection

- minimize an objection by restating it to make it less important or by comparing it to another weightier matter. provide evidence to reduce its importance

- Interviewee: we've always thought it would be great to live downtown in a loft like this, but we are afraid of the crime rate in downtown areas
- Interviewer: that was true a few years ago but crime is declining in the centers of the city and spreading to outlying areas where there are fewer police forces. robberies have declined by 23% in this areas during the past three years and increased by 27% in outlying areas

- reduce the importance of that objection

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How to Approach Objections:

2. Capitalize on the Objection

- capitalize on an objection to clarify your point, review the proposal's advantages, offer more evidence, or isolate the motive behind the objection. convert a perceived disadvantage into an advantage

- we'd like to purchase a house instead of continuing to pay rent on an apartment, but the housing market seems really bad with all the foreclosures and banks being reluctant to make home loans right now
- actually, this is a good time to buy a home. mortgage rates at 3 percent are the lowest in almost 50 years; the market is flooded with good homes in all price ranges. all of this will change in a few months as the recession lessens and more buyers enter the market

- take advantage of the objection

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How to Approach Objections:

3. Deny and Objection

- deny an objection directly or indirectly by offering new or more accurate info or by introducing new features of a proposal. you cannot deny an objection by merely denying it; you must PROVE IT

- i have heard that your group wants to raise our property taxes by 25% and are against the school voucher program that allows many of us to send our children to faith based schools
- actually it's a 2.5% increase on property taxes to prevent the loss of quality teachers in our schools, busing for students, and advance course essentials. we are not against the voucher program

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How to Approach Objections:

4. Confirm an Objection

- confirm an objection by agreeing with the interviewee. it is better to be honest and admit problems than to offer weak defenses.
- don't try to deny the undeniable.

- admit that something is expensive if it is, but point out other high priced comparable items and the perks to why the price is high in the product you are selling

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Conducting the Interview:

Closing

- approach the closing confidently and positively. don't pressure the person or appear to eager. interviewers may hesitate to close, fearing they my fail to persuade while interviewees fear they will make a wrong choice.
- sales professionals, cite hesitation to ask for a sale as the major cause of failure to sell

- the closing consists of three stages
1. trial closing
2. contract or agreement
3. leave-taking

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Closing:

1. Trial Closing

- close as soon as possible and don't keep talking if the interviewee is sold on your proposal. you make talk yourself out of an agreement.
- as you approach the end of the solution phase, watch and listen for NV and V cues that lets you know the person is moving towards a decision. verbal cues may be questions that let you know they are truly interested. NV cues include enthusiastic expressions, head nods, smiles, etc.
- yes-response and leading questions verify that the interviewee is ready to close. I'm sure you can see this is the way to to go. you want this condo, don't you? do you want to face a lawsuit?
- after you have asked a trial closing question, be quite. give them time to think and self persuade. silence communicates confidence and gives the interviewee a chance to raise unanswered questions and objections
- if you get a no to your trial closing question, ask why. you may need to review the criteria, compare advantages and disadvantages of acting now, or provide more information
- a interviewee may not be ready to act. fear of possible consequences and how others may react may overcome a need or desire.
- if you get a yes to your trial closing question, lead into the contract or agreement stage "we can sign off on this today." "we can have this equipment installed within two weeks" "it would be a relief to have this decision made"
- always know when to stop talking and probe insightfully and cautiously into negative responses

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Closing:

2. Contract or Agreement

- after a successful trial closing, move onto the contract or agreement stage. this is a critical time because the interviewee knows the closing and a commitment are coming.
- be natural and pleasant. maintain good communication. consider closing techniques appropriate for this stage
- an assumptive close addresses part of the agreement with a phrase such as "I assume you prefer..."
- a summary close summarizes agreements made as a basis for decisions
- an elimination of a single objection close response to the single objection that stands in the way of an agreement
- and either-or close limits the interviewee's choices, then shows that the solution you advocate has the most advantages and fewest disadvantages
- an I'll think it over close acknowledges the interviewee's desire to think about a decision. try to discover the level of interest and why they are hesitating
- a sense of urgency close stresses why they should act now
- a price close shows the saving possible or the bottom line of the offer

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Closing:

3. Leave-Taking

- when the contract or agreement is finished, no agreement or contract can be reached, or another interview is necessary, conclude pleasantly and positively. don't let the leave-taking phrase be abrupt or curt. you may undo the rapport and trust you have worked to establish
- adapt the verbal and nonverbal leave-taking techniques discussed in chapter 4 or combine them to suite each interviewee.
- be sincere and honest in this final closing phase, and make no promises you cannot or will not keep bc of personal or authority limitations, organizational policies, laws or time constraints.
- leave-taking should reinforce all that you have accomplished.

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Summary Outline: this outline summarizes the elements in the structure of a persuasive interview that covers need/desire and solution

1. Opening section of the interview:
- select the most appropriate techniques from chapter 4.
- establish rapport according to relationship and situation
- provide appropriate orientation

2. Creating a need or desire
- provide an appropriate statement of purpose
- develop a need point-by-point with maximum involvement of and careful adaption to the other party.
- use appropriate argument patterns
- provide a variety of evidence
- employ effective strategies
- appeal to important values and emotions
- obtain overt agreements as you proceed, being sure to point out how the interviewee party in invovled or must be concerned.
- summarize the need or problem and attain overt agreements from the interviewee.

3. Establishing criteria
- present the criteria you have in mind, explaining briefly the rationale and importance of each criterion
- encourage interviewee to add criteria
- involve the interviewee in the discussion of criteria
- summarize and get agreement to all criteria

4. Presenting the solution
- present one solution at a time.
- explain the solution in detail using visual aids when possible
evaluate the solution using agreed-upon criteria
- response to anticipated and vocalized objections
- get agreements on the appropriateness, quality and feasibility of the preferred solutions

5. Closing the interview
- begin with a trial closing as soon as it seems appropriate to do so
- when the trial closing is successful, move to a contract or agreement with the interviewee
- use approaching leave-taking techniques

- you will not develop all parts of this outline in every interview. if an interviewee agrees with the need or problem prior to the interview, merely summarize the need in the opening and move directly to criteria
- an interviewee may see the need but not agree with your proposed solution. or an interviewee may feel constraints making any move now impossible.
- feasibility is the central concern in this in this interview, not need or specific proposal. the interviewee may like your proposal but see no need.
- there is no set pattern for all persuasive interviews

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

- two key principles in this chapter are (1) that persuasion is done WITH and not TO another and (2) that both parties are responsible for making the interview a success. with these principles in mind, we now turn our focus onto the interviewee

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

Be an Informed Participant:

- unlike interviewers who are often trained and experienced in the ways of altering how people think, act and feel, interviewees often have little or no training in persuasion and may have scars from failed persuasive encounters. the remainder of this chapter introduces you to the tricks of the trade to level the persuasive playing field.

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

Psychological Strategies

- we may act automatically during a persuasive interview
- interviewers use strategies designed to create psychological discomfort - dissonance - to alter your ways of thinking, feeling and/or acting.
- for instance, standard/learned principles may automatically guide an action or decision, for example you may believe that:
- you get what you pay for
- if it's expensive, it's got to be good
- sales save money
- if an expert says it's good or says so, it must be true
- if it meets industry standards, it's safe
- upscale retailers depend on these standard/learned principles to move expensive, high quality items ranging from jewelry to automobiles

- in the contrast principle, interviewers know that if a second item is fairly different from the first in attractiveness, cost, or size, it seems more different that it actually is. if I want to rent you an apartment, I may show you a rundown one first and then a somewhat better apartment next. you may see the second apartment as substantially rather than moderately better. if a sales person can sell you an expensive suit first, then expensive ties shirts and belts seem inexpensive in comparison

- the rule of reciprocation instills in you a sense of obligation to repay in kind what another provides. for instance, if a person gives you a free soft drink and then asks you to buy a raffle ticket, you feel obligated to buy the ticket even though it m ay cost more than the soft drink. this process is at work every time you open your mail and discover yet another packet of personalized address labels. you are likely to send in a donation or not use the labels even though you did not request them. research reveals that if you use the labels and do not send in a donation you may experience psychological discomfort and fear shame if someone discovers your action
- we feel obligated to return favors.

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

Psychological Strategies

- in a reciprocal concessions strategy, you feel a sense of obligation to make a concession in response to a concession. parties employ this psychological strategy in labor-management negotiations when one party, for example, concedes on health care and the other then feels obligated to concede on retirement benefits. you encounter this strategy every day in interactions such as when a roommate agrees to provide the car for an outing and you feel obligated to pay for the gas.
- one concession deserves another, or not.

- a rejection than retreat strategy begins with a proposal that may make a second more acceptable. the idea is that after you reject the first you will feel both obligated and someone relieved to agree to the second. one study discovered that if Boy Scouts asked ppl to purchase $5 circus tickets and were turned down, the same person were likely to say yes to the second proposal of a dollar chocolate bar. the boy scouts gained either way and the persuadees feel good about helping out for a lesser amount. salespersons often start with the top of the line and then retreat to a fallback position if necessary.

- in undercover or stealth marketing, an interviewer party or two or more ppl pretends to be a friendly, disinterested party and not a sales representative. for example, two people appearing to be tourists or visitors ask a person passing by if she will take their picture. the cooperative passerby agrees and just happens to notice that the couple has a very interesting and attractive digital camera. she asks about it and the party, who just happens to be undercover sales reps for this camera company, gladly comply. the persuadee as no idea that the sales interview has even taken place.

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

Be a Critical Participant: Language Strategies

- language is far more than a collection of words and rules for proper uses. language is the instrument and vehicle of human action and expression.
- skilled interviewers are keenly aware of the power and manipulation of verbal symbols, but too many of us see the symbols are merely words and rules.
- researchers warn that as receivers, we need to get to the bottom of persuasive meanings; carefully analyzing the symbols used or misused by persuaders can help us get there.
- an important first step in this analysis is to identify common language strategies

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PART 2: The Interviewee in the Persuasive Interview

Language Strategies: Framing and Reframing

- persuaders use language to frame or construct the way you see people, places, things and objects.
- for instance, use of jargon substitutes peculiar words for common words. while some jargon seems harmless enough (schedule irregularity for flight delay) others can hide the truth (terminological inexactitude for lie), make something sound more technical than it is, more valuable than it is, or less severe that it is.
- jargon may require special interpretations and make us dependent on attorneys for help, advice and action
- strategic ambiguities are words with multiple or vague meanings. persuaders assume you will interpret the words according to their specific needs or perceptions without asking embarrassing, negative or insightful questions
- if a politician claims to be a conservative or moderate, what exactly is this person? studies show that we will pay a premium price for light, diet natural and low carb products without knowing how these differ from ones that are not.
- imagery - word pictures - contains multi-sensory words to color what you have experiences, will experience, may experience or experience indirectly. a rep for a travel agency with the aid of posters pictures and websites will help you visualize yourself on the trip. on the other hand, an interviewer might employ the same tactics to paint a negative picture with apocalyptic images and dire predictions if you vote for a specific person, purchase a certain product, join a certain group, etc.
- euphemisms substitute better sounding words for common words. cadillac was the first to substitute preowned for used cars, emphasizing ownership rather than use. you might find an inexpensive interview suit but not a cheap one and purchase from a sales associate rather than a clerk. lifelike christmas tree sounds better than a fake one. we are all attracted by pleasant sounding words, names and labels
- differentiation is not an attempt to find a better sounding word but to alter how you see reality. for ex., when an animal rights advocate wants you to become and animal guardian instead of an animal owner, this person wants to change how you see your relationship with your pet. calling female members of an org. women is not political correctness-a euphemism-but an effort to change perceptions of the abilities, capabilities, and maturity of women compared to girls. the purpose of euphemisms and differentiation are very different; the first wants to make something SOUND BETTER while the second wants to change your VISIONS OF REALITY

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Language Strategies: Appealing to People

- interviewers may appeal to your historic faith in the rule and wisdom of "the people", following Lincoln's adage that you can fool all of the people some of the time and some of the people all of the time, but you can't fool all of the people all of the time.
- the ad populum tactic claims to speak on behalf of the people, the alleged majority, such as voters, students, employees, college athletes, consumers, small business owners, etc. it is the common folk of course, not the elite, the government, the administration or the execs.
- the bandwagon tactic urges you to follow the crowd, to do what everyone else is doing, buying, wearing, attending, voting, etc. it appeals to your desire to belong and conform, often accompanies by a note of urgency "this course if filling up quickly" "these tickets are almost sold out"
- listen for important qualifiers such as nearly, probably. almost, majority. ask for numbers or names of those who have signed a petition, agreed to a change, or joined and organization. be cautious of phrases such as experienced investors, people in the know, and those who are on the move that are designed to pressure and flatter.
- for many of us, the majority rules.
- always have an inquiring mind

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Language Strategies: Simplifying the Complex

- interviewers attempt to reduce complex issues, controversies, and situations to their simplest elements. the thin entering wedge, also known as the domino effect or the slippery slope, claims that one decision, action or law after another is leading toward disastrous consequences.
- talk to a person who is against censorship, gun control, or same sex marriages and you are likely to hear how censorship of books in schools is one more step towards censoring all reading materials, how same sex marriage is a slippery slow toward the destruction of home and the family.
- look for evidence of a related, intentional string of actions that are tipping dominos, producing wedges or sliding down a dangerous slope.
- slogans are clever words or phrases that encapsulate positions, standards or goals. they are vague but powerful means to alter the way you think feel or act because they are catchy and entice you to fill in the meaning- to self persuade. interviewers rely on slogans to attract customers, recruiters, contributors, and loyalty and may change them to communicate different messages. ask what slogans mean and if they truly represent the person, org, campaign or solution
- an interviewer may polarize people, organizations, positions, or courses of actions by claiming that you only have a choice of two: conservative or liberal, friend or foe, chevy or ford, wind power or nuclear power, for gun control or against gun control, etc. polarizing limits our choices and our thinking.

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Language Strategies: Dodging the Issue

- attacking a source does not address the issue. sharing guilt does not remove the guild. blaming others is an attempt to dodge responsibility.
- interviewers may attempt to dodge critical issues, questions or objections, ad hominem (getting personal) dodges undesired challenges by discrediting a source because of age, culture, gender, race, affiliations or past positions, statements or claims.
- a parent may tell a child to just consider the source when the child is called a name or has a belief challenged. someone may urge you to ignore research conducted by a known conservative or liberal. insist that the interviewer address the issue, point or substance of the research.
- you have used the tu quoque tactic since childhood to dodge an issue or objection by revolving it upon the challenger or questioner "you're one too" "it takes one to know one" "so do you". these are classic tu quoque responses. if you question a political candidate about taking money from special interests, the person may reply "all politicians take money from special interests"
- interviewers may dodge issues by transferring guilt to others, making the accuser, victim or questioner the guilty party. cheating on an exam is the professors fault, parking illegally is the colleges fault, etc. don't allow attribution of guilt to others without addressing questions, concerns and objections

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Logical Strategies

- the logical and psychological are inseparable.
- persuaders develop arguments into what appear to be valid and acceptable patterns. it is important to recognize and challenge these common logical patterns.

- argument from example is a statement about the distribution of some characteristics among the members of a whole class of people, places or things. it's based on a sample of this class. if you recognize this patter, ask what is the total amount of this sample, what is the nature of this sample, when was it taken, what is the interviewer asserting from this sample? always check the sample from which generalizations come from. be aware of hasty generalizations in which the persuader generalizes to a whole group of people, places or things from one or few examples. for ex. a friend may tell you not to dine a particular place bc they had a bad meal there once.

- argument from cause-to-effect addresses what caused an effect. ask was this cause able to generate this effect, was this the only possible cause, was this the major cause, what evidence is offered to establish this causal link, etc. be aware of the post hoe or scrambling cause-effect fallacy that argues simply because B followed A, A must have caused B. for instance, I got the flu the day after I got that flu short, so that must have given me the flu. just because B followed A, does not mean that A caused B

- arguing from fact or hypothesis offers the best accounting or explanation for a body of facts and is the type of reasoning investigators use in murder mysteries. a football coach may argue that bc he has a senior QB who has started for 3 yrs, and has a bunch of other good members on the team, that this will be the team's breakout year. ask these questions when hearing an argument from fact: how frequently is this hypothesis accurate with these facts? is the body of facts sufficient? what facts would make this claim more or less convincing, how simple or complex is the hypothesis, etc

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Logical Strategies
(continued)

- arguing from sign is a claim that two or more variables are related in such a way that the presence or absence of one may be taken as an indication of the presence or absence of the other. for ex., you may note that the flag on the post office is at half-mast and reason that someone important has died. ask what is the relationship between these variables, is the presence or absence verifiable, what is the believability or reliability of the sign, etc. a sign may have many meanings or no meaning

- arguing from analogy or comparison is based on the assumption that if two people, places, or things have a number of similarities they also share significant others. a sales rep might argue that since a moderately priced SUV has many of the same features as a luxury SUV, you should lease the less expensive SUV bc it is of the same quality. ask how similar are these similarities, are enough similarities provided, are these similarities critical enough to claim, etc. look for important differences as well as similarities

- arguing from accepted belief, assumption or proposition is based on a statement that is thought to be accepted or proven.the remainder of the argument follows from the assertion such as smoking causes cancer, you are a smoker, therefore you may get cancer. ask do you accept the foundational assertion, does the other assertions follow logically from the chain of assertions, does the claim necessary follow from these assertions, etc. beware that arguments based on alleged self-evident truths that cannot be questioned or disputed bc they are "fact"

- in argument from condition an interviewer asserts that if something does or does not happen, something else will or will not happen. the central focus in the word IF. ask is the condition acceptable, is this the only condition, is the he major condition, etc
- if arguments may ignore obvious or unpredictable conditions

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Evidence

- look closely at the evidence an interviewer offers or does not offer to gain attention and interest, establish credibility and legitimacy, support arguments, develop a need or present a solution. evidence may include examples, stories, authorities or witnesses, comparisons and contrasts, stats and key definitions. use these questions to assess the acceptability of an interviewer's evidence

- is the evidence given trustworthy? are the persuaders and ppl being cited reliable or unbiased?
- is the evidence authoritative? what are the training, experience and reputation of those being cited and what position were they in to observe the facts events or data?
- is the evidence recent? is the most recent evidence available or is newer evidence of available? have ppl changed their mind?
- is the evidence documented sufficiently? do you know where and how the stats or results were determined, who determined them, and when they were reported?
- is the evidence relayed accurately? can you see alterations or deletions in quotes, stats, or documentations? is the evidence cited in context?
- is the evidence sufficient in quantity? are enough authorities cited? enough examples given?
- is the evidence sufficient in quality? are opinions stated as facts, how satisfactory is the sample, does proof evidence outweigh clarifying evidence, etc?

- insist on both quality and quantity of evidence. assess reliability and expertise of sources.
- be active in the interview. each interview has the potential of altering or reinforcing the way you think, feel, act, including the money you spend, the votes you cast, relationships you establish, possessions you protect, the work you do and life you lead. as a variety of questions during each interview. informational questions, for example, enable you to obtain info and explanations, probe into vague and ambiguous terms and comments, reveal feelings and attitudes that may lie hidden or merely suggested.
- there are NO foolish questions, only questions you foolishly fail to ask.

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The Opening

- be alert and active in the first moments of every interview. if it is a cold call in which you have no time to prepare, use carefully phrased qs to discover the identity, position and qualifications of interviewer. discover the real purpose and intent of the interview. use the opening to play an active, critical and informed role in the interview. it all starts with the opening.
- too many persuadees play passive roles during openings. most often the interviewee does not exhibit personality or attitudes and learns little about the purpose of the interview, how long it will take or the nature of the issue.

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Need or Desire

- if an interviewer attempts to conduct an interview without a clear purpose and in which the need is a collection of generalizations and ambiguous claims, insist on a point by point development with each point crafted carefully and logically supported with evidence and adapted to your values, beliefs and attitudes.
- beware of fallacies and tactics that dodge your qs and objections. an interviewer may attempt to introduce another point rather than address your concerns about a point. insist on answers to your qs and objections and get agreements before delving into another point
- weight evidence carefully and be on guard against psychological strategies designed to manipulate reactions and make you feel obligated to reply in kind. do not tolerate negative selling or mudslinging. insist on getting agreements on the need before going into criteria or solutions
- ask qs, challenge arguments and demand solid evidence

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Critiera

- establishing criteria with the interviewer that any solution should meet is a critical part of the persuasion process. an interviewer may come with a list of criteria and this helps the process and shows planning. take an active part in establishing criteria. are the criteria clear? do you wish to modify the criteria? which are the most important criteria? are there criteria you wish to add?
- criteria enable you to weigh solutions

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Solution

- an interviewer may say there is only ONE obvious solution to the need or desire agreed upon. there is rarely only one solution to any issue. insist upon a detailed presentation of each possible solution. ask qs and raise objections. be sure the criteria are applied equally to each solution to determine which is best for you in this situation. if possible, insist on seeing, feeling hearing or experiencing the product or proposal.
- when you have agreed upon a solution or course of action, beware of qualifiers or "add ons" such as guarantees, rebates, accessories, processing fees or commitments. be sure the solution meets your needs and is the best option available

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The Closing

- don't be rushed into make a decision or commitment. you have little to gain and much to lose through haste. a common tactic is to create psychological reaction by claiming the possibility of censorship or scarcity of a product. an org may produce a limited number of books, coins, cars, or positions to make them more in demand to urge you to act quickly before it's too late or an agency steps in to prevent you from acting
- take time to think about a decision, sleep on it. be sure all of your qs are objections are answered satisfactorily.
- be aware of the possible ramifications of you decision. consider getting a second or third option. talk to ppl who have relevant info expertise or experiences. check out competing products, candidates, offers and programs.
- when coming to a new community, check out many neighborhoods before buying a home visit several schools and tryout several computers before buying one.

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SUMMARY

- good persuasive interviews are ones in which both parties are actively involved, not speeches given to an audience of one but interpersonal interactions in which both parties must speak and listen effectively
- the guiding principle is that persuasion is DONE WITH not DONE TO another party
- good persuasive interviews are honest endeavors conducted according to fundamental ethical guidelines.
- they are not games in which the end justifies means or buyer beware is a guiding principle. the appeal should be to the head and the heart rather than relying on emotional hot buttons that will override critical thought and decision making
- good persuasive interviews are carefully researched, planned, and structured, yet they remain flexible enough to meet unforeseen reactions, objections and arguments.
- the interviewer adapts the persuasive effort to this persuadee; develops, supports and documents important reasons for a change in thinking, feeling or acting; and presents a detailed solution that meets criteria agreed upon by both parties. persuasion often entails several contacts in which the persuader and persuadee reach incremental agreements.
- good persuasive interviews involve the interviewee as a responsible, informed critical and active participant who plays a central not passive role in the interview. the interviewee acts ethically, listens carefully, asks insightful and challenging questions, raises important objections, challenges evidence and arguments, recognizes common persuasive tacts for what they are and weighs solutions according to agreed upon criteria.