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Flashcards in Exam #1 Review Deck (128):

Gender in Relationships

- men and women are more similar than different in their communication and relationships
- substantial similarities, not differences, were found in the values both sexes place on supportive communication skills, such as comforting and listening
- regardless of similarities, gender differences of interview parties may be critical in establishing and refining relationships.
- men's talk tends to be directive and goal oriented with statements that tend to press compliance, agreement or belief.
- women's talk may be more polite and expressive, containing less intense words, qualifiers (perhaps), and disclaimers (maybe I'm wrong, but..) (I may not fully understand the situation, but...)
- women use communication as a primary way of establishing relationships, while men communicate to exert control, preserve independence, and enhance status.
- women give more praise and compliments and are reluctant to criticize directly in the workplace while men remain silent when a coworker is doing something well and take criticism straight.
- women report greater satisfaction with their interactions than do men.
- women are more likely to betray and be betrayed by other women.
- men are more likely to be betrayed by other men with whom they are competing with


Global Relationships:

- in intercultural conflict situations, when we are experiencing high anxieties with unfamiliar behavior (for ex., accents, gestures, facial expressions), we may automatically withhold trust.
- some anxiety already exists in the early stages of relationships.
- this anxiety stems from fears about possible negative consequences of our actions. we may be afraid that we will look stupid or will offend someone because we're unfamiliar with that person's language or culture.


Global Relationships: relationships develop differently in different cultures.

- in the US we tend to have many friendly, informal relationships and tend to place importance on how a person looks, particularly early on in the relationship.
- we create and discard friendships frequently, while Australians make deeper and longer-lasting commitments.
- Arabs also develop friendships quickly like Americans, but unlike Americans who dislike taking advantage of friendships by asking for favors, Arabs believe friends should do favors for one another and have a duty to help one another.
- Chinese develop long-term relationships that tend to be strong, and, like the Arabs, see friendships as involving obligations.
- In Mexico, trust in relationships develops very slowly, is given sparingly, and must be earned.
- Germans develop relationships slowly because they seem them as very important, and using first names before a relationship is well-established is considered rude behavior.
- Japanese prefer not to interact with strangers, want background information on parties before establishing relationships, prefer doing business with people they've known for years, and take time establishing relationships.


Directive Approach:

- a directive approach allows the interviewer to maintain control.
- the interviewer establishes the purpose of the interview and attempts to control the pacing, climate and formality of the interview.
- questions are likely to be closed with brief, direct answers.
- although an aggressive interviewee may assume some control as the interview progresses, the interviewer intends to control the interview.
- typical directive interviews are information giving, surveys and opinion polls, employee recruiting, and persuasive interviews such as a sales.
- it's easy to learn, takes less time, enables you to maintain control, and is easy to replicate.


Nondirective Approach:

- the interviewee has significant control over subject matter, length of answers, interview climate, and formality.
- q's are likely to be open-ended and neutral to give the interviewee maximum opportunity and freedom to respond.
- typically nondirective interviews are journalistic, oral history, investigations, counseling, and performance review.
- this approach allows for greater flexibility and adaptability, encourages probing questions, and invites the interviewee to volunteer information.
- enables the interviewee to share control.
- nondirective allows the interviewee to become more involved in the process and more active in changing the flow or direction of the discussion.


Combination of Approaches

- be flexible and adaptable when selecting approaches
- the roles we play should guide but not dictate approaches
- you can select a combination of the two approaches.
- you may choose the nondirective approach at first to relax the interviewee and then switch to a directive approach when giving information about the organization and position, and return to the nondirective approach when answering the applicant's questions.
- often the choice of interview approach is governed by societal and organizational rules and expectations.
- adherence to societal roles and expectations may lead to an ineffective interview.


Each party enters the interview setting with perceptions of self and the other party. They play a major role in the interaction and dynamics of the interview. There are four critical perceptions in the process:

1. perception of self
2. perception of the other party
3. how the other party us
4. how the other party perceives self


1. Perceptions of Self:

our self-perception - self concept - emerges from our experiences, activities, attitudes, accomplishments and failures, interactions, and the superior and subordinate roles we play.
- it is a demanding and assertive personal view of who we are and how we want to be seen and taken, of the kind of persons we feel ourselves to be or the kind of person we think we out to be.
- our self-concept is a mutual creation of interpretations - how we interpret and think others interpret who we have been, are and will be
- it's through these interpretations that we create our self-identity.


1. Perceptions of Self:

- our self-concept is a mutual creation of interpretations - how we interpret and think others interpret who we have been, are, and will be
- it's through these interpretations that we create our self-identity.
- we come to each encounter with an identifiable "self" built through past interactions, and as we talk, we adapt ourself to fit the topics we are discussing and the people we are talking with, and we are changed by what happens to us as we communicate.
- our self-concept and self-identity are affected by the expectations of our family, society, professions, and organizations place upon us.
- we may experience different self-concepts as we move from one situation or role to another.


1. Perceptions of Self:

- self-esteem is how we perceive our self-worth.
- it's a critical element of self-concept and self-identity
- we exert a great deal of mental and communicative energy attempting to gain and maintain recognition and approval from family members, friends, peers, and others because we have a "persistent and compelling" need to give an accounting of ourselves
- if we feel respected and taken seriously - have high self-esteem - we may be more perceptive, confident, and likely to express attitudes and ideas that are unpopular.
- low self-esteem can lead to us not correctly interpreting the behavior and communication of others.
- we may succeed or fail because we convince ourself that we will - the self-fulfilling prophecy that influence messages sent and received, risks taken, confident and self-disclosure.
- self-esteem is closely related to self-worth.


1. Perceptions of Self:
(self-fulfilling prophecy)

- if we feel respected and taken seriously - have high self-esteem - we may be more perceptive, confident, and likely to express attitudes and ideas that are unpopular.
- low self-esteem can lead to us not correctly interpreting the behavior and communication of others.
- we may succeed or fail because we convince ourself that we will - a self-fulfilling prophecy that influences messages sent and received, risks taken, confident and self-disclosure.


Gender/Cultural Differences:

- self-concept, self-identity and self-esteem are central in American and Western cultures because they emphasize the individual.
- not central in Eastern cultures or South American countries.
- Japanese, Chinese and Indians are collectivist cultures, not individualists - they are more concerned with the image, esteem and achievement of the GROUP.
- China would consider focusing on the individual as egotistical, self-advancing, and disrespectful. Success is attributed to the GROUP or TEAM
- failure to appreciate cultural differences has led to many communication problems for American interviewers and interviewees.
- many citizens of the global village are less concerned with self than with the group.


Gender/Cultural Differences:

- gender matters in self-concepts because gender roles are socially constructed ideas about how women and men should think and behave.
- men are expected to be more assertive and in charge, and self-sufficient while women are taught to be feminine, submissive, and to show empathy and emotional expressiveness.
- not all men and women act this way but we can't ignore the role of society on gender and self-concept and it's potential impact on an interview.


2. Perceptions of the Other Party

- perceptions are a two-way process
- allow interactions to alter or reinforce perceptions
- how you perceive the other affects how you approach an interview and how you react during it.
- previous encounters with a party may lead you to look forward to or dread an interview.
- your perceptions may be influence by the other's age, gender, race, ethnic group, size and physical attractiveness - particularly if the person differs significantly from you.
- a positive endorsement of a third party may influence how you perceive a person.
- if you are flexible and adaptable, these perceptions may change as an interview progresses by how the interview begins, the other party's manner, dress, appearance, listening and feedback, verbal and nonverbal interactions, questions and answers, etc.
- warmth, understanding, and cooperation on the part of both parties can enhance perceptions of each.


There are three communication levels that differ in relational distance, self-disclosure, risk encountered, perceived meaning, and amount and type of context exchanged.

- level 1
- level 2
- level 3


Level 1 Interactions

- interactions on this level avoid judgements, attitudes, and feelings
- interactions are safe and superficial
- relatively safe, nonthreatening interactions about such topics as hometowns, professions, sporting events, college courses, families, etc.
- they generate safe, socially acceptable, comfortable and ambiguous answers such as "pretty good" "not bad" "can't complain" that do not reveal judgments, attitudes, or feelings.
- each level is a metaphorical door, with the door being slightly open in level 1 interactions.
- general ideas, surface feelings, and simple information pass through, but either party may close the door quicly and safely if necessary
- the thickness of the arrow in the figure means that level 1 communication exchanges are most common in interviews, and the length of the arrow symbolizes the relational distance
- level 1 interactions dominate interviews in which there is no relational history, trust, the issue is controversial, or the role relationship is between high-status and low-status parties.


Level 2 Interactions

- this level requires trust and risk-taking
- this level deals with personal or controversial topics and probe into beliefs, attitudes, values and positions.
- responses tend to be half-safe, half-revealing, as parties seek to cooperate without revealing too much.
- the metaphorical door is half open (the optimist view) or half closed ( the pessimist's view) - as more specific and revealing ideas, feelings and information pass through
- through willing to take more risk, parties retain the option to close the door quickly if needed.
- thickness of the arrow signifies that level 2 interactions are less common than level 1, and the length of the arrows shows hat a close relationship between parties is necessary to move from superficial to more revealing exchanges (level 1 to level 2)


Level 3 Interactions

- this involves full disclosure
- deal with more personal and controversial topics/levels of inquiry
- Respondents fully disclose their feelings, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions
- little is withheld and sometimes questioners get more than they bargained for.
- the metaphorical door is fully and wide open.
- risk and benefits are considerable for both parties.
- the thin, short arrow indicates that level 3 interactions are the most uncommon, particularly in initial contacts, and the relationship between the parties must be trusting with a sharing of control.
- a positive relationship is essential for level 3 interactions.


Self Disclosure:

- in most interviews, you must move beyond level 1 to level 2 to level 3 to obtain information, detect feelings, discover insights, attain commitments, etc.
- this requires varying degrees of self-disclosure, and this may not be easy to do.
- unlike being a member of a group or audience into which you can blend or hide, the interview often places your social, professional, financial or physical welfare on the line.
- interviews deal with your behavior, your performance, your reputation, your decisions, your weaknesses, your feelings, your money or your future.


Self Disclosure:

- Self Disclosing can carry a degree of risk
- suggestions for reducing risk: be aware of the nature of your relationship with the other party, begin with a safe level of disclosure, be sure disclosure is relevant and appropriate, be sensitive to the effect your disclosure will have on the other party and persons not involved with the interview, continue to disclose at a level at which the other party reciprocates.
- we tend to have few inhibitions when interacting online and may disclose to much info , what some refer to as "hyperpersonal'" revelations - and this info may come earlier in online interactions.


Self Disclosure: (Gender)

- women disclose more freely than men, except for anger and are allowed to express emotions (fear, sadness, empathy) more than men.
- bc women are perceived to be better listeners and more responsive than men, disclosure is often highest between woman-to-woman parties, about equal in woman-to-man parties, and lowest among man-to-man parties


Self Disclosure: (culture)

- culture may dictate what we disclose and to whom
- Americans of European descent may disclose a wider range of topics, including personal info than Chinese or Japanese.
- Asians disclose more to those with expertise and ability to exhibit honest and positive attitudes than to those who like to talk and show more emotional feelings.
- High context and collectivist cultures (Japan and China) where they are expected to work for the good of the group and to know/follow the cultural norms - disclose less than those in low-context, individualist countries (US and Great Britain)
- in individualist cultures like the US and Great Britain, people strive to succeed as individuals and cultural norms are less known and more flexible.
- conflict can occur if we over-disclose, under-disclose or disclose to the wrong person in differing cultures.


Verbal Interactions consist of:

- multiple meanings
- sound alikes
- ambiguities
- connotations (words have positive and negative connotations. ex. a suit is "inexpensive" or "cheap")
- jargon
- slang
- euphemisms ( substitution of a better-sounding word for a more common word. ex. powder room instead of bathroom, associate rather than clerk)
- naming (you can label a person, place or thing to alter how you and the other party see reality. ex. you may experience a downturn rather than a recession)
- power words
- role and regional differences
- gender differences
- global differences


Verbal Interactions: Region and Role Differences

- most american's speak english but there are regional and role differences
- people in new jersey go to the shore, while those is cali go to the beach
- a person in New England asks for soda and a person in the midwest for pop, and a person from the south says a coke
- social security has different meanings for a 24 year old than a 64 year old.
- employees and management view downsizing and outsourcing differently


Verbal Interactions: Gender Differences

- gender differences may lead to power differences
- there are differences in languages used among men and women
- mend tend to be socialized into developing and using power speech forms and to dominate interactions, while women tend to be socialized into developing powerless speech forms and to foster relationships and exchanges during interactions
- women talk is more polite and expressive, contains more qualifiers an disclaimers, includes more second and third person pronouns (such as we rather than I and me), makes more color distinctions, includes fewer mechanical and technical terms, and is more tentative than men's talk
- men not only use use more intense language than women but they also are often expected to do so bc it is considered masculine.
- if a woman uses the same language she may be perceived as bitchy, pushy or opinionated.


Verbal Interactions: Global Differences

- global use of words may be more significant than foreign words
- language differences are magnified in the global village, even when parties are speaking the same language.
- north american's value precision, directness, explicit words, power speech forms, use of "I" to begin sentences, and straight talk
- other cultures value the group or collective rather than the individual and rarely begin with "I" or call attention to themselves.
- Chinese children are taught to downplay expression
- Japanese tend to be implicit rather than explicit and employ ambiguous words and qualifiers
- arabs tend to employ what is referred to as "sweet talk" or accommodating language with elaborate metaphors and similes
- idioms such as "bought the farm" "thats greek to me" "wild goose chase" "stud muffin" and "hit a home run" are unique and may pose serious problems for those with varying degrees of expertise in a language or culture.


Nonverbal Interactions

- nonverbal signals send many different messages
-bc of the interactive nature of interviews, each party relies on NV signals to interpret the other's verbal expressions and to know when it is time to talk and listen.
- a head nod, voice, pause, or leading back may invite turn taking or a role change bc we rely on NV cues to express ourselves and interpret the expressions of others.
- since the parties are in close proximity, they are likely to detect and interpret what the other does and does not do nonverbally: eye contact, facial expressions, winks, touches, glances, etc.
- a single behavioral act may convey a message. poor eye contact may tell the other party that you have something to hide, a limp handshake can mean that you are timid, serious facial expression that you are sincere, a puzzled facial expression that you are confused, etc.


Nonverbal Interactions

- your speaking rate may communicate urgency (fast speed), the gravity of the situation (slow speed), lack of interest (fast speed), lack of preparation (slow speed)
- silence may encourage the other to talk, signals that you are not in a hurry, express agreement with what is being said, and keep the other party talking.
- a combination of NV acts may enhance the impact of your message. you may show interest my leaning forward, maintaining good eye contact, nodding your head and having a serious facial expression
- when you fidget, cross and uncross your arms and legs, look down, furrow eyebrows, etc. you may reveal a high level of anxiety, fear, or agitation.
- any behavioral act, or its absence, can convey a message. & any behavioral act, or the lack of one, may be interpreted in a meaningful way by the other party
- physical dress and appearance are important in the first few minutes of interviews as you get to know and respect one another.
- ppl see attractive people are more poised, outgoing, interesting and sociable. how you dress and prepare yourself physically for an interview may reveal how you see yourself, the other party, the situation and the importance of the interview


Nonverbal and Verbal Intertwined

- In mixed messages, the how may overcome the what
- verbal and nonverbal messages are intricately intertwined
- you really can't isolate nonverbal and verbal messages from each other
- the NV often complements the verbal such as when you call attention to important words or phrases through vocal emphasis (like underlining, italicizing, or highlighting in print).
- we complement words with tone of voices, speaking rate, facial expression and eye contact
- the NV may reinforce words with a head nod or head shake. the NV may serve as a substitute for words, such as when we point to a chair without saying "sit here"
- silence can signal disagreement more tactfully than words even when the meaning is the same


Nonverbal and Verbal Intertwined

- research indicates, however, that the NV may be more powerful than the verbal in some circumstances.
- NV may exchange feelings and emotions more accurately; convey intentions relatively free of deception and confusion; be more efficient; and impart ideas indirectly.
- subjects in studies said they thought NV behaviors were more truthful than verbal messages, and if the messages conflicted - mixed messages, they were more likely to believe the NV.
- how trumps what. HOW someone does something trumps WHAT someone says


Nonverbal Messages: Gender and Cultural Differences

- women are more adept at NV communication.
- women are more skilled at and rely more on NV communication than men
- facial expressions, pauses, and bodily gestures are more important in women's interactions than men's, perhaps bc women are more expressive than men.
- women tend to gaze more and are less uncomfortable when eye contact is broke.
- men's lower pitched voices are viewed as more credible and dynamic than women's higher pitches voices.
- female parties tend or sit closer than opposite-sex parties, and males maintain more distance than opposite sex or female parties.
- also be aware of the diversity of NV messages in different part of the world (ex. a thumbs up in the US means way to go but it means screw you in Iran)


The Interview Situation:



Factors that Determine Success of Interview:
1. Time, Day, Week, and Year
2. Place
3. Surroundings
4. Territoriality
5. Seating Arrangment

- settings are seldom neutral
- each party perceived the interview situation in similar and different ways
- parties will communication at levels 2 and 3 if they perceive the situation to be familiar rather than strange, informal rather than formal, warm rather than cold, private rather than open, and close rather than distant physically, socially and psychologically.
- organizations attempt to enhance concentration and motivation with well lighted, pleasantly painted, moderate sized rooms with comfortable furniture, temperature, and ventilation.
- some settings that resemble living rooms, dining rooms, family rooms and studies make interview parties feel more at home and willing to communicate
- perceptions are critical in moving beyond level 1 interactions



Time of Day, Week, Year

- each of us have optimum times for interactions
- we may interact best at certain time of the day, week or year
- holidays are good times for some interviews and bad for others.
- events that precede or follow interviews may make it difficult for either party to concentrate, listen or answer questions (academic or medical examination, possible layoffs, drops in the stock market)
- take into account events before and after interviews




- don't underestimate the importance of place
- consider who's turf is better for the interview
- we protect our turf, think of your reactions when you walked into your room or office and found another person in your personal space.
- few women have a particular and unviolated room in their homes, while men have dens or man caves, studies, or work areas that are off limits to others.




- surroundings help create a productive climate
- objects and decorations may create an appropriate atmosphere and interview climate
- trophies, awards, degrees, and license attractively displayed communicate achievements, professional credibility and stature
- pictures, statues and busts of leaders and famous people communicate organizational and person history, success, recognition and endorsement.
- colors of walls, types of carpeting, wall hangings, wallpaper, and curtains can provide a warm, attractive atmosphere conducive of effective communication




- noise in an interview is anything that interferes with the communication process, including background noise, doors opening and closing, music, others talking, objects being dropped, traffic, etc.
- eliminate negative influence of noise by selecting locations free of background noise or taking simple precautions like closing a door, window, curtain, turning off a cellphone, tv, or CD player.
- inform others that you don't want to be disturbed
- eliminate self-generated noise by coming to each interview physically and psychologically ready for the interview and ready to concentrate.
- try to focus your energy and attention on the other party, questions, answers and nonverbal signals.




- relationship affects territorial comfort zones
- age, gender, and culture influence territorial preferences
- you may select a seat, arrange books and papers, and place coats and hates strategically around you to stake our your physical and physiological space.
- you may resent those who invade this carefully crafted space with their choice of seating, possessions, eyes, voices or bodies.
- think about how you felt when someone walked into your professors office when you were discussing an issue, or a colleague talking loud at the next dest while you're talking with a client




- proximity of interview parties affect comfort level
- you may feel uncomfortable with ppl who insist on talking nose-to-nose, and may react by backing up, placing furniture between the two of you, or terminating the interview
- "territorial markers"
- "personal space" described an imaginary bubble around us that we consider to be almost as private as the body itself
- touching-18 inches is intimate distance
- personal distance is 1 1/2-4ft
- social distance is 4-12ft
- 2-4ft, approximately an arms length or on opposite sides of a table or desk is an optimum distance for most interviews




- relationship, status, situation, feelings of parties toward one another all influence the size of the bubble with which you are comfortable
- we maintain a greater distance with a stranger than with close associates or peers
- some ppl want to get in your face when angry and others widen the space bc their anger is translated into distancing themselves form your physically, socially and emotionally
- age, gender and culture determine space preferences
- ppl of the same age sit closer together than those of mixed ages, particularly when age differences is significant
- all-male parties tend to arrange themselves farther apart than all-female parties or mixed-gender parties




- north americans prefer greater personal distances than do middle easter and latin americans
- where you sit and on what you sit is often determined by status, gender, furnishings, cultural norms, relationship and personal preferences
- a superior and subordinate may sit across a desk from one another
- seating may equalize control and enhance the interview climate
- two chairs at right angles near the corner of the desk creates a less formal atmosphere and a greater feeling of equality between the two parties. students often prefer this arrangement with professors


Relationship Dimensions (5)

- similarity
- inclusion/involvement
- affection
- control
- trust

1. Similarity
2. Inclusion/Involvement: both parties want to participate
3. Affection: mutual respect
4. Control: neither party dominates
5. Trust: the level of trust dramatically affects the outcome


Relationship Dimension: Similarity

- a few similarities do not equal relational peers.
- relationships are fostered when both parties share cultural norms and values, education, experiences, personal traits, beliefs and expectations.
- you may find it easier to interact with people of the same gender or race, who share similar political views, have the same major, and love similar music.
- awareness of such similarities able interview parties to understand one another and establish a common ground - literally to expand the overlap of the circles until perceived similarities overcome perceived dissimilarities.
- be cautious because surface similarities such as age, dress and ethnicity may be all that you have in common.
- "similarity is based not on whether people actually are similar but on the perceived (though not necessarily real) recognition or discovery of a similar trait." - Judith Martin


Relationship Dimension: Inclusion

- wanting to take part leads to collaboration
- relationships are enhanced when both parties want to take part actively as speakers and listeners, questioners and respondents.
- the more you are involved and share, the more satisfied you will be with the relationship and look forward to future interactions.
- degree or satisfaction may be apparent in each party's words, gestures, face, eyes and actions.
- effective relationships develop when interviewer and interviewee become interdependent, when "each become aware that what" they do and not do "will have an impact on the other" and each begins to act with the other person in mind.
- their behaviors are joint actions now, not individual actions.


Relationship Dimension: Affection

- we interact more freely with person's we like.
- interview relationships are cultivated when parties like and respect one another and there is a marked degree of warmth or friendship.
- occurs when their is a "we" instead of a "me-you" feeling and you communication in a way the other party finds pleasant, productive and fair.
- it is important that both parties know whether feelings toward one another in an interview are likely to be positive, ambivalent, or negative. (signals for hostility are inconsistent)
- you may come to an interview with an ambivalent or hostile attitude toward the other party, perhaps due to relational history or what James Honeycutt calls relational memory.
- "even though relationships are in constant motion, relationship memory structures provide a perceptual anchor so that individuals can determine where they are in the relationship."
- relational memory may aid parties in dealing with what researchers call dialectical tensions that result from conflict between important but opposing needs or desires or between opposing or contrasting voices, each expressing a different or contradictory impulse.
- dialectical tensions are not necessarily bad because researchers believe they are a normal part of any close, interdependent relationships and they become problematic only when people fail to manage them properly.


Relationship Dimension: Control

- because each party participates in a continuous process, each is responsible for its success or failure.
- john stewart introduced the concept of "nexting" that he labels, "the most important communication skills" because whenever you face a communication challenge or problem, the most useful question you can ask yourself is "what can I help to happen next"
- he claims that since no one person determines all the outcomes of a communication event, you can help determine some outcomes, even if you feel almost powerless. since no one person is 1000% to blame or at fault, and all parties share responsibility, our next contribute can affect what's happening.
- who controls what and when poses problems in interviews because interviews frequently involve organizational hierarchies or chains of command: president over vice president, professor over student, supervisor over intern.
- this upward and downward communication may encumber each party, perhaps in different ways.
- Edward Hall: one's status in a social system also affects what must be attended. people at the top pay attention to different things from those in the the middle or the bottom of the system.
- what you look for a value as a student may be quite different from what a professor looks for and values.
- hierarchy may hinder the flow in information and self-disclosure.


Relationship Dimension: Trust

- trust is essential in every interview
- trust is the single most important element of a good working relationship.
- trust is essential because potential outcomes affect each party directly - your income, your career, your purchase, your profits, your health, your understanding.
- relationships are cultivated when parties trust one another to be honest, sincere, reliable, truthful, fair, even-tempered, and of high ethical standards - in other words, safe.
- when we trust others, we expect positive outcomes from interactions with them; when we have anxiety about interacting with others, we fear negative outcomes from our interactions with them.
- creating trust is a delicate process and may take months or years to develop with another party, but i can be destroyed in an instant if you feel betrayed by a colleague, coworker, friend, etc.
- trust provides a context in which interaction can be more honest, spontaneous, direct and open.
- disclosure is critical to the success of interviews and uninhibited disclosure requires trust.
- unpredictable persons and outcomes lead to cautious questions and responses and sharing of information and attitudes - risk is too high.
- a generation ago 2/3s said they trust other persons - now 2/3s say they don't trust others.
- the result is that their is a greater effort to protect ourselves when communication with other people.


Variables Present In Each Interview:

- two parties
- exchanging roles
- perceptions
- levels of exchanges
- verbal and nonverbal messages
- relationships
- feedback
- listening
- situations
- outside forces


Questions and Their Uses:

- a question is any action that solicits an answer
- w's are the tools of the trade for both parties in interviews and like all tools, each has a name, unique characteristic, performs specific functions, and enables us to complete tasks efficiently and effectively.
- questions may be the most powerful technology we have ever created because they allow us to control our lives and allow us to make sense of a confusing world by leading to insight and understanding
- a question need not be a complete sentence with a question mark at the end.
- it is any word, phrase, statement, or nonverbal act that invites an answer or response


Open and Closed Questions:

- they vary in the amount of information they solicit and degree of interviewer control.
- info may range from a single word to lengthy descriptions, narratives, and reports of statistical data
- control may range from minimal for open ended questions to maximum with closed questions


Open Questions:

Highly Open and Moderately Open

- open questions invite open answers
- open questions vary in degree of openness ranging from a topic or area of inquiry to more specified subject matter.
- regardless, respondents have considerable freedom to determine the amount and kind of information to give


Highly Open Questions

- highly open questions place virtually no restrictions on the interviewee
- what do you recall about the blizzard of 1978?
- what was it like fighting in the mountains of Afghanistan?
- tell me about your safari in Kenya


Moderately Open Questions

- are more restrictive but give respondents considerable latitude in answers.
- how did you manage to dig out of your car after the blizzard of 1978?
- tell me about your most frightening experience while fighting in the mountains of Afghanistan
- what was it like visiting the Masai village during your safari in Kenya?


Closed Questions:

- close q's are narrow in focus and restrict the interviewee's freedom to determine the amount and kind of information to provide.


Moderately Closed Questions:

- restricted questions lead to restricted answers
- moderately closed questions ask for specific, limited pieces of information such as:
- what are you favorite places to eat?
- on which airlines have you flown during the past year?
- what was the first thought that came to mind when the principal announced over the PA system that the school was on lockdown?


Highly Closed Questions:

- highly closed questions may ask interviewees to pick an answer
- highly closed w's are very restrictive and may ask respondents to identify a single bit of information
- which cruise line did you take on your Alaska trip?
- how much does it cost per credit hour for your online course?
- what is your e-mail address?


Bipolar Questions

- closed q's may be bipolar because they limit respondents to two polar choices. some ask you to select and answer from polar opposites
- bipolar questions offer polar opposites for answers
- are you going to the Sunday afternoon or Sunday evening service?
- do you usually work the day or night shift?
- are you a democrat or republican?

- other bipolar q's ask for an evaluation or attitude
- are you for or against compulsory health insurance?
- do you approve or disapprove of the new library closing hours?
- do you like or dislike the new traffic circle at Cumberland and Kent?

- the most common bipolar q's ask for yes or no responses
- have you voted yet?
- are you going to the staff meeting this afternoon?
- do you have an E-Z pass for the toll road?


Open and Closed Questions

- as the amount of data decreases (more closed), your control increases, less time and skill are required, and the degree of precision, reliability and reproducibility increases.
- as you open up a question, the amount of data increases and the interviewees may reveal knowledge, level, understanding, reasons for feeling or acting, attitudes and hidden motives.
- interviews can include both open and closed questions with varying degrees of constraint to get the information desired.
- "are you familiar with the presidents job plans?" - bipolar question, and then follow it with an open-ended question like "what do you know about this plan?"
- an open question "tell me about your study abroad semester in Poland" can be followed with a closed question, "what was your first impression of Poland?"
- combinations often lead to the best results


Primary Questions:

- primary questions make sense out of context.
- primary questions introduce new topics or new areas within a topic and can stand alone even when taken out of context
- "tell me about your trip to western Canada"
- "who was the most influential person in your life?"
- "how did you prepare to run the Boston Marathon?"


Probing Questions:

- q's designed to dig deeper into answers that appear incomplete, superficial, suggestive, vague, irrelevant, or inaccurate are called probing questions.
- unlike primary questions that can stand alone and make sense, probing or follow-up questions make sense only when connected to the previous question or series of questions
- probing questions make sense only in context.


Silent Probe:

- if an answer is incomplete or the respondent seems hesitant to continue, use a silent probe with an appropriate nonverbal signal such as eye contact, a head nod, or a gesture to encourage the person to continue.
- silence shows interest in what is being said, and is a tactful way to respect the answer and the respondent if you communicate disbelief, uncertainty, or confusion
- be patient and be quiet.

- What do you think of the President's state of the union speech?
- it was about what I expected
- (silence)
- most of his ideas have appeared in the news or in other speeches over the past few months, so I wasn't surprised by anything he said.


Nudging Probe:

- a nudge replaces silence with a word or phrase.
- use a nudging probe if a silent probe fails and words seem necessary to get what is needed.
- it nudges the interviewee to reply or to continue.
- the nudging probe is usually simple and brief such as:
- I see.
- go on
- yes?
- and?
- so?
- uh-huh?

- a common mistake is the assumption that all questions must be multiple-word sentences.
- a lengthy probing question might stifle the interchange or open up a new area of topic, the opposite of what you want. valuable information and insights may be lost.


Clearinghouse Probe:

- a clearinghouse probe is an essential tool for discovering whether a series of questions has uncovered everything of importance on a topic or issue
- it encourages respondents to volunteer information you might not think to ask for and to fill in gaps your questions did not elicit.
- this probing tool literally clears out an area or topic, such as the following:
- what have I not asked that you recall about this incident?
- is there anything else you would like for me to know?

- a clearing house probe enables you to proceed, confident that you have gotten all important information.
- you cannot anticipate or plan for all information a party might be willing to reveal, so what you do not ask may be more important that what you do ask.


Informational Probe:

- pry open vague, superficial, and suggestive answers
- informational probing q's are used to get additional information or explanations.
- for example, if an answer is superficial, ask a probing question such as:
- tell me more about your encounter with the Senator.
- what specifically did she say?

- if an answer is vague or ambiguous, perhaps inviting different interpretations, ask an informational probe.
- you say you are from a small town. what was its population?

- if an answer suggests a feeling or attitude, ask an informational probe:
- you still appear to be depressed about that three overtime loss
- would you be willing to accept your student's comments about you on his Facebook page?


Restatement Probe:

- restate or rephrase to get complete answers
- respondents may not answer the question you ask.
- rather than create a new probing question, restate all or part of the original question, perhaps using vocal emphasis to draw attention to the original concern.
- rephrasing an original question tactfully may avoid embarrassing the interviewee.
- if an interviewee makes a mistake in an answer, restate your question tactfully, perhaps with vocal emphasis, to avoid the appearance of questioning the person's honesty or intelligence. For example:
- who do you think was the best democratic president during the past 50 years?
- Ronald Reagan without a doubt?
- Who do you think was the best DEMOCRATIC president during that time?
- if a person seems hesitant to answer a question, the question may be unclear or seem to demand what is difficult to provide.
- restate the question so that it is clearer and easier to answer.
- if you ask a question with more than one part, a respondent may answer one part. restate the portion or portions left unanswered.


Reflective Probe:

- reflective questions verify and clarify
- a reflective probe literally reflects the answer just received to verify or clarify it so you know you have interpreted it as the respondent intended.
- make it obvious that you are seeking verification and clarification, not attempting to lead or trap the interviewee into giving a desired answer or to question honesty or intelligence
- be tactful verbally and nonverbally.

- if an answer seems inaccurate (wrong data or figure, inaccurate quotation, mix-up in words), ask a reflective probing question such as the following:
- that was AFTER the fire was detected?
- that was GROSS profits from the fund-raiser?
- by former president Bush, are your referring to president George H. W. Bush??

- a reflective probe is different from a restatement probe in that a reflective probe seeks to clarify and verify an answer
- a restatement probe seeks to obtain more information following a primary question
- Another example of Reflective Probes:
- do you believe the candidates wife has a good grasp on what live is like for most citizens?
- no, i don't. she hasn't worked a day in her life
- are you saying that being a mother of four children is not working? (verifying and clarifying your original answer)


Mirror Probe:

- the mirror question, unlike the reflective question, summarizes a series of answers or interchanges to ensure accurate understanding and retention.
- it may mirror or summarize a large portion of an entire interview, to be certain of instructions, elements of proposal, prescribed regimens, agreed-upon procedures, and so on.
- for example, a physician might use a mirror question to verify understanding of a patient's symptoms.
- reflective and mirror questions can help you avoid errors cause by faulty assumptions, poor memory, or misinterpretations


Types of Probing Questions:

- silent probe
- nudging probe
- clearinghouse probe
- informational probe
- restatement probe
- reflective probe
- mirror probe


Neutral Questions:

- neutral questions allow respondents to decide upon answers without direction or pressure from the questioner.
- in open, neutral questions, the interviewee determine the length, details, nature of the answer.
- in closed, neutral questions, a person may choose between equal choices.
- all questions discussed and illustrated so far have been neutral questions
- neutral questions encourage honest answers


Examples of Neutral Questions:

- do you enjoy fly fishing?
- are you going to the conference?
- how did this class compare to the last one?
- how do you feel about working out?
- what were your reactions to the new scheduling system?
- have you ever gotten drunk?
- have you ever cheated in class?
- do you consider yourself to be a conservative or liberal?
- how do you feel about gun control laws?
- do you want a diet soft drink?


Leading Questions:

- leading questions suggest the answer expected or desired because the questioner leads the respondent toward a particular answer by making it easier or more tempting for the respondent to give one answer over the other.
- leading questions direct interviewees to specific answers.


Examples of Leading Questions:

- you like fly fishing, don't you?
- you're going to the conference, aren't you?
- wasn't this class better than the last one?
- do you hate to work out like most of us?
- what were your reactions to the stupid new scheduling system?
- when was the lsat time you got drunk?
- have you stopped cheating in class?
- do you consider yourself to be a conservative or socialist?
- how do you feel about gun control laws that violate our second amendment rights and will lead to a police state?
- I assume you want a diet soft drink?


Interviewer Bias:

- interviewer bias occurs whenever respondents provide answers they feel the interviewer prefers to hear.
- such bias may be intentional or unintentional
- leading questions are a major source of interview bias, but others are status differences between the parties, an interviewee's perceptions or assumptions, word choice, dress, symbols such as political buttons and nonverbal signals.
- interviewer bias leads to dictated responses
- an apparent bipolar question may in reality have only one pole.


Loaded Questions:

- loaded questions are extreme leading questions.
- since leading questions, particularly loaded ones, have potential for severe interviewer bias, avoid them unless you know what you're doing.
- introductory phrases like "according to the law" "as well all know" "as witnesses have testified" and "as the coach warned" may lead respondents to give acceptable answers rather than true feelings or beliefs.
- you can turn a neutral question into a leading question by the nonverbal manner in which you ask it.
- for ex., you may appear to demand a certain answer by leaning toward the respondent, looking the person directly i the eyes or raising an eyebrow.
- you can even appear to demand a certain answer by emphasizing key words.


Leading Questions:

- do not confuse neutral mirror and reflective probing questions with leading questions
- mirrors and reflective may appear to direct respondents toward particular answers, but their purposes are clarification and verification, not leading or direction.
- if they lead by accidents, they are failures.


Common Question Pitfalls: (10)

- bipolar trap
- open-to-closed switch
- leading push
- guessing game
- yes (no) response
- curious probe
- quiz show
- complexity vs. simplicity
- don't ask, don't tell
- Tell Me Everything

1. Bipolar Trap: asking a yes or no question but really you want more detail

2. Open-to-closed Switch:

3. Double-barreled Inquisition: asking two or more questions at the same time or in the same sentence

4. Leading Push:

5. Guessing Game: trying to guess info instead of simply asking for it

6. Yes (No) Response: asking a question that obviously only has one response

7. Curious Probe: asking a question that is irrelevant to the current discussion.

8. Quiz Show: asking questions above or below the respondents information level

9. Complexity vs. Simplicity:

10. Don't Ask, Don't Tell:

11. Tell Me Everything:


Question Pitfall: Bipolar Trap

- avoid unintentional bipolar questions
- you fall into a bipolar trap when you ask a bipolar question designed to elicit a yes or no answer when you really want a detailed answer or specific information.
- this pitfall is obvious in questions that begin with words such as do you, did you, are you, have you, were you, can you, is there, would you, and was it.
- if all you want is a yes or no, each may be satisfactory, but a yes or no tells you little.
- bipolar w's assume there are only two possible answers and that the answers are poles apart: conservative-liberal, like-dislike, approve-disapprove, agree-disagree, high-low, yes-no
- eliminate bipolar traps by reserving bipolar questions for situations in which only yes or no or a single word is desired.
- begin questions with words and phrases such as what, why, how explain, and tell me about that ask for detailed information, feelings or attitudes.


Question Pitfall: Tell Me Everything

- the tell me everything is at the opposite end of the scale from the bipolar trap.
- instead of a simple yes/no or agree/disagree, this question trap occurs when the interviewer asks an extremely open question with no restrictions or guidelines for the interviewee.
- the interviewee may have a hard time determining where to begin, what to include, what to exclude, and when to end.
- the tell me everything pitfall occurs in an employment interview when the recruiter says "tell me about ourself" or when a journalist asks "what was it like in Afghanistan?" or health provider asking "tell me about your medical history"
- ask open questions rather than closed and bipolar questions, but don't make them too open.
- for an ex. let the interviewee know what part of self, the Afghanistan deployment, and the medical history you are most interested in.


Question Pitfall: Open-to-closed Switch

- think before asking and know when to stop asking
- the open-to-closed switch question occurs when you ask an open question but, before the interviewee can respond, you rephrase it into a closed or bipolar question.
- tell me about your trip to Seattle. Did you see the new Boeing Dreamliner?
- why did you purchase a new pickup truck? was it because of the rebate?
- the open-to-closed switch occurs when you are still phrasing a question in your mind.
- this rummaging about for the right phrasing often changes a perfectly good open question into a narrow, closed question.
- the respondent is likely to address only the second question, perhaps with a yes or no.
- avoid the open-to-closed switch by preparing questions prior to the interview and thinking through questions before asking them.


Question Pitfall: Double Barreled Inquisition

- the double-barreled inquisition question occurs when you ask two or more questions at the same time instead of a single, precise question.
- which charities do you give to most often and how did you choose these?
- tell me about your positions at Penney's and Macy's
- a respondent may answer both parts of the question, they may answer both parts superficially, answer the party they can remember, select the party they want to answer, or react negatively to the perceived inquisition
- you may find it necessary to repeat a portion of the initial question to get all of the information wanted, or you may be unaware of missing information and go to another primary question prematurely
- avoid the double-barreled inquisition and its dangers by asking one question at a time. if you ask a double-barreled inquisition, repeat the part the interviewee did not answer.


Question Pitfall: Leading Push

- the leading push occurs when you ask a question that suggests how a person ought to respond.
- the push may be intentional (you want to influence the answer) or unintentional (you are not aware of the push)
- it is easy to interject feelings or attitudes through language and nonverbal signals.
- you're going to the help session, aren't you?
- you chose a college because your girlfriend went their?
- you may not realize you have asked a leading question and remain unaware that you received a skewed answer to please you.
- the interviewee may go along with whatever answer you seem to want, particularly if you are in the superior role.
- avoid the leading push trap by phrasing questions neutrally and listening carefully to each question you ask.


Question Pitfall: Guessing Game

- the guessing game pitfall happens when you try to guess information instead of asking for it.
- it's common in interviews
- strings of closed, guessing questions fail to accomplish what a single open-ended question can.
- ask rather than guess, and rely on open rather than closed questions to avoid the guessing game pitfall.


Question Pitfall: The Yes (No) Response

- the yes (no) response pitfall occurs when you ask a question that has only one obvious answer, a yes or no.
- each of the following q's are likely to get predictable responses:
- do you want to pass this course?
- do you want to die?
- avoid the yes (no) question pitfall by opening up your questions and avoiding the obvious.
- an obvious question will generate and obvious answer.


Question Pitfall: The Curious Probe

- curious probes delve into information you do not need.
- curiosity may be fatal to interviewers.
- make sure every question you ask probes into info that is relevant and important to the purpose of your interview.
- if there is a likelihood that a question may appear to the interviewee to be irrelevant or non of your business, explain why it's important and how you will use the information you receive.
- ask for demographic data such as age, income, educational level, and marital status only when such info is clearly necessary and relevant, after you have established trust, and at the END of the interview.
- as an interviewee, do not assume a question is irrelevant; the interviewer may have a valid reason for asking.
- other cultures ask questions that might appear irrelevant (Japanese may ask personal questions early on to learn important characteristics about you)


Question Pitfall: The Quiz Show

- interviews are not quiz shows - the parties you interview should have a store of knowledge that enables them to answer comfortably and intelligently.
- questions about the respondents information level may cause embarrassment or resentment bc no one wants to appear uninformed, ill-informed, uneducated, or unintelligent.
- respondents may fake answers or give vague answers rather than admit ignorance.
- on the other hand, questions below the respondents intelligence or level of information may be insulting.
- avoid the quiz show pitfall by asking for information in common categories or frames of reference such as pounds rather than ounces, cups rather than pots of coffee, or numbers of hours watching tv per day than month or year.


Question Pitfall: Complexity vs. Simplicity

- ask q's that are simple, clear requests of reasonable amounts of information.
- avoid overly complex questions that challenge respondents to figure out what you want.
- if you must have a complex question, explain the scale and provide opportunities for interviewees to try out the scale to determine if they understand the question and how to answer it.
- phrase questions carefully by avoiding a mixture of negatives, positives, maybes and unnecessary details.


Question Pitfall: Don't Ask, Don't Tell

- don't ask don't tell questions delve into information and emotions that respondents may be incapable of addressing because of social, psychological or situational constraints.
- there is a time and place for everything, so you do not discuss certain topics, in mixed groups, in public, or in political, religious or social settings.
- some areas are often taboo: sex, personal income, religious convictions, and certain illnesses.
- explain why a question is essential to ask and delay touchy or taboo questions until you have established a comfortable climate and a positive relationship.
- phrase questions carefully to lessen social and psychological constraints and to avoid offending interviewees.


Ch. 3 Summary

- each tool has unique characteristics, capabilities and pitfalls.
- knowing which w to select and how to use it is essential for interviewing effectively and efficiently.
- each question has three characteristics
(1) open or closed
(2) primary or probing
(3) neutral or leading
- open q's are designed to discover large amounts of info, while close q's are designed to gain specific bits of information.
- primary q's open up topics and subtopics while probing w's probe into answers for more information, explanations, clarifications and verifications.
- neutral q's give respondents freedom to answer as they wish, while leading q's nudge or shove respondents toward specific answers.
- phrasing questions is essential tog et the information needed. if you phrase q's carefully and think before asking, you can avoid common w pitfalls such as bipolar trap, tell me everything, leading push, etc.


Traditional Forms of Interviewing:

1. Information-Giving Interviews
2. Information-Gathering Interviews
3. Selection Interviews
4. Reviewing the Interviewee's Behavior
5. Reviewing the Interviewer's Behavior
6. Persuasion


Nontraditional Forms of Interviewing:

1. The Focus Group Interview
2. The Telephone Interview (including cellphones)
3. The Videoconference Interview
4. The Email Interview
5. The Virtual Interview


We Listen For:

1. Comprehension
2. Empathy
3. Evaluation
4. Resolution

1. Comprehension:

2. Empathy:

3. Evaluation:

4. Resolution:


Listening for Comprehension

- the intent of listening for comprehension is to understand content
- listening for comprehension is designed to receive, understand, and remember an interchange as accurately and completely as possible by concentration on a question, answer, or reaction to understand and remain objective, not to judge.
- this approach is essential when giving and getting information and during the first minutes of interviews when determining how to react.
- be sure to listen carefully and patiently to each question and answer.
- listen to content and ideas as well as tone of voice and vocal emphasis for subtle meanings.
- ask questions to clarify and verify


Listening for Empathy

- the intent of empathetic listening is to understand the other party
- listening for empathy communicates genuine concern, understanding, and involvement.
- empathetic listening reassures, comforts, expresses warmth, and shows regard.
- it is not expressing sympathy or feeling sorry for someone but the ability to place one's self in another's situation
- show interest and concern nonverbally and by not interrupting. be comfortable and nonjudgemental with displays of emotion.
- reply with tact and understanding and by providing options and guidelines.


Listening for Evaluation

- the intent of evaluative listening is to judge content and actions
- this is often referred to as critical listening - it's listening that judges what you hear and observe.
- it may follow comprehension and empathy because you are ready to judge when you comprehend the verbal and nonverbal interaction
- often expressing criticism may diminish cooperation and level of disclosure
- make judgements only after listening carefully to content and observing nonverbal cues.
- ask q's for clarification of exchanges and validations of your interpretations.
- do not become defensive when an interview party reacts critically to your criticisms


Listening for Resolution

- the intent of dialogic listening is to resolve problems
- john stewart developed a 4th type of listening called dialogic listening that focuses on "ours" rather than "mine" or "yours" and believes the agenda for resolving a problem or task supersedes the individual.
- most important for problem-solving interviews when the goal is the join resolution of a problem or task
- stewart likens dialogic listening to adding clay to a mold together, to see how the other person will react, what the person will add, and how this will affect the shape and content of the product.


Interview Guide:

- an interview guide contains topics, not questions
- the second step of an interview process is to prepare an interview guide, which is a carefully structured outline of topics and subtopics to be covered, NOT a list of questions.
- a guide enables you to identify specific areas of inquiry that ensures coverage of important topics during the heat of the interview and helps you to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information.
- It will assist you in phrasing questions, recording answers, and recalling information at a later date.
- helps develop specific areas of inquiry
- helps make sure all important areas are covered
- helps keep track of information
- an interview guide is basically an outline.
- outline sequences are useful for interviews.
- sequences help organized topics and impose a degree of structure on interviews.


Outline Sequences: (5)

1. Topical
2. Time
3. Space
4. Cause-to-effect
5. Problem Solution

- an interview guide is basically an outline.
- outline sequences are useful for interviews.
- sequences help organized topics and impose a degree of structure on interviews.


Topical Outline Sequence:

- a topical sequence follows a natural division of a topic or issue.
- for example, if you are planning to interview a number of attorneys about law schools you may attend, your guide would include such topics as ranking among law schools, areas of specialization, quality of the law school review, number and type of law firms that come to campus for interviews, and costs.
- the traditional journalist guide consisting of six key words - who, what, when, where, how and why - is useful in many interview settings.


Time Outline Sequence:

- treats topics or parts of topics in chronological order.
- for instance, a conference on solar powered vehicles may start with registration from 830-930, proceed to a general session on the history of solar power vehicles at 10:30, a session of recent developments in solar powering of vehicles at 11:30, have lunch from 12:30 - 1pm, a demonstration of solar powered vehicles from 1:30-3:30 and a closing session from 3:30 to 4:30 PM


Space Outline Sequence:

- a space sequences arranges topics according to spacial divisions
- left to right, top to bottom, north to south, or neighborhood to neighborhood.
- a person conducting tours of a resort might begin with the restaurants and bars, and then proceed to the pool area, sauna, fitness facility, golf course and marina


Cause-to-effect Outline Sequence:

- this sequence explores cause and effect. an interviewer might begin with a cause or causes and then proceed to effect, or discuss apparent effect and then move to possible causes.
- for example, if you were investigating the collapse of a stage during a violent thunderstorm, you may interview people in the areas during the collapse to determine effects of the storm followed by interviews with structural engineers to determines the cause or causes of the collapse.


Problem-Solution Outline Sequence:

- consists of a problem phase and a solution phase.
- you might conduct interviews with recruiters to discuss a serious problem with lack of diversity among an organization's workforce and then identify and discuss possible solutions.


Developing an Interview Guide:

- a guide ensures the consideration of all important topics and subtopics.
- interviews may include more than one sequence or none at all.
- as your start your interview guide, begin with major areas of information you need to make your decision
- finally with the major areas and subtopics listed, determine if there are important subtopics of subtopics.
- you may not know enough prior to an interview to develop subtopics under certain areas and subtopics or you may discover additional subtopics during the interview.
- the interview guide enables you to add and delete as necessary.
- you may employ more than one outline sequence in an interview.
- selection of areas and appropriate subtopics will determine which sequences are most appropriate.


Interview Schedule: Nonscheduled Interview
(no questions prepared in advance)

- after completing an interview guide, decide if additional structuring and preparation are needed.
- the guide may be sufficient enough to conduct a nonscheduled interview with no questions prepared in advance.
- the nonscheduled interview is most appropriate when interviews will be brief, interviewees and information levels differ significantly, interviewees are reluctant to respond or have poor memories, or there is little preparation time.
- a nonscheduled interview gives you unlimited freedom to probe into answers and adapt to different interviewees and situations because it is the most flexible of interview schedules
- however, nonscheduled interviews require considerable skills and are difficult to replicate from one interview to another.
- you may have difficultly controlling time and interviewer bias may creep into unplanned questions.
- a nonscheduled interview is merely an interview guide.


Interview Schedule: Moderately Scheduled
(contains all major questions)

moderately scheduled interview consists of all major questions with probing questions under each.
- The sentences and phrases in a guide become questions
- the moderate schedule, like the nonscheduled interview, allows freedom to probe into answers and adapt to different interviewees, but it also imposes a greater degree of structure, aids in recording answers, and is easier to conduct and replicate.
- you need not create every question on the spot but have many thought out and carefully worded in advance.
- this lessens pressures during the interview.
- since interview parties tend to wander during unstructured interviews, listing questions makes it easier to keep on track and return to a structure when desired.
- journalists, medical practitioners, recruiters, lawyers, police officers, and insurance investigators tend to use moderately scheduled interviews.


Interview Schedule: Highly Scheduled
(all questions worded exactly)

- a highly scheduled interview sacrifices flexibility and adaptability for control.
- on paper a highly scheduled interview may look no different from the moderately scheduled interview, but they are very different in execution.
- unlike those in a moderate schedule, all questions in a highly scheduled interview are asked exactly in the order they are listed and worded on the schedule.
- questions may be closed so respondents can give brief, specific answers.
- highly scheduled interviews are easy to replicate and conduct, take less time and nonscheduled and moderately scheduled, and prevent parties from wandering into irrelevant areas or spending too much time on one or two topics.
- flexibility and adaption are NOT options
- probing questions must be planned and not asked on the spot.
- researchers and survey takers use highly scheduled interviews.


Interview Schedule: Highly Scheduled Standardized
(most thoroughly planned and structured. all questions and answer options are stated in identical words to each interviewee. there is no straying by either party)

- these interviews provide precision, replicability, and reliability.
- this is the most thoroughly planned and structured type of interview.
- all questions and answer options are stated in identical words to each interviewee who then picks answers from those provided.
- there is no straying from the schedule by either party.
- these are the easiest types of interviews to conduct, record, tabulate, replicate, so even novice interviewers can handle them.
- however, the breadth of information is restricted, and probing into answer, explaining questions, and adapting to different interviewees are not permitted.
- respondents can not explain, amplify, qualify or question any answer options.
- built-in interviewer bias may be worse than accidental bias encountered in nonscheduled and moderately scheduled interviews.
- researchers and survey takers use highly scheduled standardized interviews because their procedures must produce the same results in repeated interviews by several interviewers.


Combination of Schedules:

- consider strategic combinations of schedules
- for example, use a nonscheduled approach for the opening minutes, a moderately scheduled approach when it is necessary to probe and adapt to interviewees, and a highly scheduled standardized approach for easily quantifiable information such as age, religion, formal education and marital status.
- schedules range from a topic outline to a manuscript.
- for instance, you might write major arguments for a persuasive interview, instructions for an information-giving interview, and the opening and closing for a survey interview.


Question Sequences:

Question Sequences:
1. Tunnel
2. Funnel
3. Inverted Funnel

Combination Sequences:
1. Hourglass
2. Diamond
3. Quintamensional Design


Tunnel Sequence: (string of beads)

similarly phrased string of open or closed questions

- a tunnel sequence works well with informal and simple interviews.
- the tunnel sequence, or string of beads, is a similarly phrased string of open or closed questions.
- each question may cover a specific topic, ask for a specific piece of information, or identify and attitude or feeling.
- the tunnel sequence is common in polls, surveys, journalistic interviews, and medical interviews designed to elicit info, attitudes, reactions and intentions.
- when the questions are closed, the information is easy to record and quantify.


Funnel Sequence: (open to closed)

starts with broad, open questions and goes on to more restricted, closed questions

- a funnel sequence begins with broad, open-ended questions and proceeds with more restricted questions.
- this sequence begins with open ended questions and is most appropriate when respondents are familiar with a topic, feel free to talk about it, want to express their feelings, and are motivated to reveal and explain attitudes.
- the funnel sequence lesses possible conditioning or biasing of later responses.
- for example, if you begin an interview with a closed question you may force a respondent to take a polar position or appear to signal that you want only brief answers.
- an open question does not force respondents to take polarized positions and enables them to explain and qualify positions.


Inverted Funnel Sequence: (closed to open)

starts with restricted, closed questions and goes onto more open questions

- begins with closed questions and proceeds towards open questions. it is most useful when you need to motivate an interviewee to respond or an interviewee is emotionally involved in an issue or situation and cannot readily reply to an open question.
- this sequence provides a warm up time for those that are reluctant to talk.
- best when interviewees feel they do not know much about atopic or do not want to talk. a respondent's memory or thought processes may need assistance, and closed questions can serve as warm ups when open ended ones might overwhelm a person or result in disorganized and confused answers.
- this sequence may end with "clearing house question" such as... Is there anything else you would like to tell me?


Hourglass Sequence: (open-closed-open)

- a situation may call for a combination of sequences
- for instance, the hourglass sequence begins with open questions, proceeds to closed questions, and ends with open questions.
- employ it when you wish to begin with a funnel sequence and then proceed in your line of questions to an inverted funnel sequence
- this combination enables you to narrow your focus and then proceed to open it up when the interviewee or topic warrants it.


Diamond Sequence: (closed-open-closed)

- the diamond sequence enables interviewers to begin with closed questions, proceed to open questions, and end with closed questions.
- each combination sequence offers different arrangements of open and closed questions that enable you to approach specific interview situations and interviewees with flexibility and adaptability


Quintamensional Design Sequence

5 steps
George Gallup

1. awareness of the issue
2. uninfluenced attitudes
3. specific attitudes
4. reasons for these attitudes
5. intensity of attitudes

- George Gallup, the famous poll designer, developed this design sequence to assess the intensity of opinions and attitudes.
- this five-step approach proceeds from an interviewee's awareness of the issue to attitudes uninfluenced by the interviewer, specific attitudes, reasons for these attitudes, and intensity of attitude. Example:

1. Awareness: What do you know about the new state law banning smoking in some facilities?
2. Uninfluenced Attitudes: How might this bad affect you?
3. Specific Attitude: do you approve of disapprove of the statewide ban on smoking?
4. Reason why: Why do you feel this way?
5. Intensity of Attitude: How strongly do you feel about this - strongly, very strongly, not something you will change your mind on?

- you can use this sequence, or modify it by creating questions most suitable for specific interview situations.
- once you have determined a specific purpose for you interview and developed a structure appropriate for your interview, you are ready to create an opening adapted to the parties in the interview, the situation, and your purpose.
- the few seconds or minutes spend in the openings are critical to the success of your interview.


Opening the Interview

- it takes two parties to launch and interview successfully.
- what you do and say, or fail to do and say in the opening influences how the other party perceived self, you and the situation.
- the opening sets the mood of the interview and affects willingness and ability to go beyond Level 1 interactions.
- the tone may be serious/lighthearted, optimistic/pessimistic, professional/nonprofessional, formal/informal, threatening/nonthreatening, or relaxed/tense
- a poor opening may lead to a defensive climate with superficial, vague, and inaccurate responses.
- if dissatisfied with the opening a party may say no, walk away, close the door or hang up the phone.
- the primary function of the opening is to motivate both parties to participate willingly and to communicate freely and accurately.
- motivation is a mutual product of interviewer and interviewee, so every opening must be a DIALOGUE, not a monologue.
- it is DONE WITH the other party, not TO the other party.
- too often the interviewee is given little opportunity to say anything beyond single-word responses to opening questions.
- interrupting an interviewee is common.


Opening the Interview: 2 Step Process

1. Establishing Rapport
2. Orienting the Other Party

- the opening is a two step process of establishing rapport and orienting the other party that encourages active participation and willingness to continue with the interview.
- what is included and how content is shared depends upon interview type, situation, relationship and preferences.
- the opening is a two-step process of establishing rapport and orienting the other party that encourages participation and willingness to continue into the body of the interview.
- What is included and how content is shared depends upon the interview type, situation, relationship and preference.


1. Establishing Rapport

- rapport is the process of establishing and sustaining a relationship between interviewer and interviewee by creating feelings of goodwill and trust.
- you may begin with a self introduction or a simple greeting if the relationship is established and positive accompanied by appropriate nonverbal actions such as a firm handshake, eye contact, a smile, a nod, a pleasant, friendly voice.
- the rapport step may include personal inquiries or small talk about weather, mutual acquaintances, families, sports, and new events.
- considering flavoring a personal inquiry and small talk with tasteful and appropriate humor.
- do not prolong the rapport stage; know when enough is enough.
- customs of a geographical area, organizational traditions or policies, culture, status differences, relationship, formality of the occasion, interview type, and situation may determine the appropriate verbal and nonverbal rapport-building techniques of each interview.
- do not refer to strangers, superiors or high-status people by first names unless asked to do so.
- limit humor or small talk when a party is busy or the situation is highly formal or serious.
- do not overdo sweet talk such as congratulations, praise, and expression of admiration. make sure to be sincere.


2. Orienting the Other Party

- orientation is an essential second step in the opening
- you may explain the purpose of the interview, length, nature of the interview, how the information will be used, and why and how you selected the party to interview
- study each situation carefully to determine the extent and nature of orientation
- do not assume that bc you and the other party appear similar (gender, age appearance, language, educational background, culture, etc.) that you are similar in ways critical to the success of the interview.
- you may falsely assume that you share similar nonverbal codes, beliefs, attitudes, or values.


Rapport and Orientation

- rapport and orientation are often intermixed and reduce relational uncertainty.
- by the end of the opening, both parties should be aware of important similarities, the desire of each to take part in the interview, degree of warmth or friendliness. how control will be shared, and the level of trust.
- a poor opening may mislead and create problems during the interview.


Verbal Opening Techniques:

- state the purpose
- summarize the problem
- explain how a problem was discovered
- offer an incentive or reward
- request advice or assistance
- refer to known positions of the interviewee
- refer to your organization
- request for a specific amount of time
- ask a question
- use a combination of these

- state the purpose: explain why you are conducting the interview
- summarize a problem: begin with a summary when an interview is unaware of a problem
- explain how a problem was discovered: explain how a problem was detected and by whom.
- offer an incentive or reward: incentive may motivate interviewee
- request advice or assistance: this is common bc interviewers often need help
- refer to known positions of the interviewee: this identifies the interviewee's position on an issue or problem
- refer to your organization: refer to the org. you represent
- request a specific amount of time: make a realistic request for a specific amount of time needed
- ask a question: open-ended is better than closed. closed can be answered quick with a no or rejection
- use a combination of these


Nonverbal Communication in Openings

- verbal openings are accomplished by appropriate nonverbal communication.
- this is impacted by appearance, what is said and actions.
- it is critical in creating a good first impression and confirming legitimacy
- important factors in this process are territoriality, appearance and touch
- an effective opening depends on how you look, act, and say what you say.


Nonverbal Communication in Openings

- Territoriality: knock before entering a room, even if the door is open, you are a superior, or you are in your own home, building, or organization. You are entering another person's space and any perceived violation of territory may begin an interview poorly. In some cultures, women enjoy less territoriality than men. Few women have particular and unviolated rooms in their homes will men have dens, studies, and work areas that are off limits to others.
- Face, Appearance, Dress: this contributes a great deal to first impressions. They may communicate interest, sincerity, warmth, urgency, attractiveness, neatness, maturity, and professionalism.
- Touch: if shaking hands is appropriate for the relationship and situation, give a firm handshake. Be careful with overdoing handshakes with acquaintances and colleagues or during informal interviews. Touching is generally appropriate only when both parties have an established and close relationship.


Closing the Interview: closing is very important not only because it affects this interview but it can play a role in relationship building and future contact.

- offer to answer questions
- use clearinghouse questions
- declare completion of intended purposes
- make personal inquiries
- make professional inquiries
- signal that time is up
- explain the reason for the closing
- express satisfaction or appreciation
- arrange for the next meeting
- summarize the interview

Closing Techniques:
- offer to answer questions: give the party enough time to ask any questions if needed
- use clearinghouse questions: enables you to detrmine if you have covered all topics, or resolved all concerns.
- declare completion of the intended purpose: state that thet ask is completed.
- make personal inquiries: good way to end interview and enhance relationships. "What are your plans this summer?"
- make professional inquiries: more formal than personal ones, must be sincere and show genuine interest. "How is your research on alternative fuels going?"
- signal that time is up: "I see we are out of time."
- explain the reasons for the closing: explain why the interview must end. "You have another student waiting to talk to you" "I have an appointment downtown."
- expression appreciation or satisfaction: "thank you so much for meeting with me on short notice"
- arrange for the next meeting: "I have a few more questions to ask, could we meet next week?"
- summarize the interview: summary closing is common for informational, performance, counseling, and sales. repeat information, stages, verify accuracy and agreement.


How Do Interviews Originate?

- need or desire for information; may have importance or interest for large groups or individuals.
- are topics for interviews generally restricted? No.
- what is the forum for interviewing? - depends on the participants and information sought.


Attributes of Interviews:

- an interview is an interactional process because there is an exchanging or sharing of roles.
- interviews may involve two more people (two recruiters interviewing a graduate senior, two police officers interviewing a crime suspect), but NEVER more than two parties.
- at least one of the two parties must come to an interview with an important goal-other than mere enjoyment-and intention to focus on specific subject matter.


Interview Definition:

- an interview is an interactional communication process between two parties, at least one of who has a predetermined and serious purpose that involves the asking and answering of questions.


How Does One Conduct A Good Interview?
(Gray's Simple Rules)

1. must have knowledge and interest of interview topic
2. understand the interviewee and their ability to respond
3. be sure the interviewee is comfortable with the setting
4. encourage responses in a non-threatening manner.


On top of
- Time, Day, Week and Year
- Place
- Surroundings
- Seating Arrangment

Outside forces also play a role.

- outside forces may determine roles in many interviews
- family, friends, associates, employers, government, professional associates, etc. = outside forces
- we are not really alone with the other party
- outside forces may suggest or dictate who takes part, when and where; attitudes assumed; topics covered; structure followed; questions asked and answers given
- organizational policies, union contracts, pressures of a political campaign, equal employment opportunity laws, and competitors influence perceptions, levels of exchanges, self-disclosure, and interviewing approaches.
- what may take place following the interview - a report you must submit, accounts in the media, possible grievances or lawsuits, reactions of peers - may make parties careful and wary or headstrong and hasty
- you may feel pressure to relate that you followed the rules, drove a hard bargain, got a deal, or told the other party where to get off.
- remember that the two interview parties are seldom truly alone in the process