Ch. 7 - Interviewing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7 - Interviewing Deck (44):
1

The Recruiting Interview

- recruiting is expensive and complex
- it's a critical task for every organization bc their futures depend on it
- talent rules so management must be obsessed with attracting and retaining new talent.
- finding talent at a reasonable cost and developing that talent is the ultimate difference between success and failure.
- anyone can buy technology, but the critical element in competing globally is people
- the task of recruiting high-quality people is not easy. it's hard work
- you can't know enough, learn enough or experience enough in a single interview.
- the process entails multiple contacts. it's an elaborate courtship process fraught with all sorts of interpersonal problems between two complex parties and susceptible to bias and distortion.
- in spit of such problems, the interview remains a critical component of the selection process bc recruiters must become keenly aware of and probe into the skills, attitudes, behaviors and abilities that may make an applicant an ideal fit for the organization and positions

2

The Recruiting Interview

- if the interview is done by an experienced professional who knows what they are looking for, has the ability to ask the right q's, and get beyond the fluffy stuff they will come away with justified reasons as to why an individual either is or isn't suitable.
- a common and faulty belief is that Human Resources personnel recruit new employees for an org.
- in truth, HR ppl typically play minor roles in the recruiting process bc it is far too important and complex to assign to a single element of any organization, particularly when the need is for highly trained ppl such as sales, reps, educators, attorneys, physicians, engineers, therapists, research scientists, and financial mangers.
- we have seen many of our students return to campus within a year of graduation to aid in recruiting talent for their organization bc they can identify readily with their alma meter and its students.

3

Where to Find Good Applicants:

- numerous resources available to locate quality applicants in virtually all fields from college grads to senior citizens.
- social and professional networks are excellent sources for identifying experienced applicants who have drawn attention to themselves bc of their performance and accomplishments.
- check your file of "potentials" persons who have come to your attention in the field and at professional meetings and might be quality applicants for your opening
- don't overlook current and past interns as potential full-time employees or as contacts for quality applicants
- interns are good recruiters bc they can sing your praises without seeming to be a part of your establishment and readily identify with college-aged students.
- college career centers allow you to make contacts with soon-to-be college grads and alumni and to arrange for interviews
- attend job or career fairs on college campuses, malls, host cities, and ones in professional meetings and conferences.
- personal contacts, attractive booths, and promotional materials such as brochures, book bags, and inexpensive pens get your name before a large number of potential applicants and help them recall who and what you are.
- merely publishing an opening is not sufficient enough
- make sure the ppl that work at your booth have good interpersonal skills, enjoy meeting people and are able to conduct interviews on-the-spot if these can be arrange.d
- be sure to bring along carefully phrased job descriptions to attract those interesting in and qualified for the openings you have.
- have application forms and sign up sheets handy to keep track of quality applicants, take notes and collect resumes.
- make follow-up contacts shortly after attending a career fair with those who seemed qualified and most interested in your positions/org.

4

Where to Find Good Applicants:
(continued)

- your org may decide to hire a staffing firm (sometimes called placement agencies, employment agencies, or head hunters) to locate quality applicants and perhaps to conduct initial screening interviews
- select such firms carefully to determine their success rates and suitability for your org and the positions you with to fill.
- the american staffing association offers important guidelines for making the best choice, including shopping around, type of staffing help you need, impressions of your initial interactions with the firm, how the staffing firm selects it employees (screening, testing, training) and how well the firm understands your organization and your needs.
- many orgs, particularly retail, have in-store terminals and kiosks to attract people who might not apply otherwise.
- this allows them to establish and update a prospective database every minute the store is open and to sort thru applications to locate most qualified applicants.
- there are many resume databases you can use if in-store terminals and kiosks are not appropriate or unavailable for your org
- National Resume Database, Regional Database, Local Resume Database, Category focus that includes 22 career fields, etc.

5

Where to Find Good Applicants:
(continued)

- there are hundreds of internet and electronic sources available to locate quality applicants.
- web sites of colleges and universities, religious orgs, senior citizens clubs, political parties, and special interest groups
- Careerbuilder.com
- Monster
- Wall street journal carriers main
- Kennedy's The Directory of Executive and Professional Recruiters
- websites have not replaced personal contacts
- most orgs are striving to diversify their work force, particularly among ethnic groups.
- it's suggested to advertise in ethic media such as alternate language newspapers, mags, websites, radio, tv, etc. and in movie theaters that attract diverse clients
- think globally because recruiting employees from diverse ethnic groups hold opportunities for companies beyond their wildest dreams
- don't overlook your web site bc the majority of prospective applicants will check this site to determine if your org is attractive and a good fit
- one in two potential applicants consider the employer's website to be important and one in four would reject the potential employer on the basis of a poor website.
- site should be easy to read, interesting and sophisticated
- a simple reality check is to long onto your site as a potential employee to see if it meets these criteria

6

Preparing the Recruiting Effort

- since the recruiting interview remains the central component of attracting and selecting employees, recruiters must approach the process systematically and learn how to prepare for, participate in, and evaluate it.
- professionally conducted interviews not only select better employees but also present good impressions of orgs
- planning helps you learn necessary info about each applicant while at the same time avoid potential legal pitfalls in the process

7

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Reviewing EEO Laws

- start the recruiting process by carefully reviewing equal employment opportunity laws, includes those of the states in which you will be recruiting that may be more stringent than federal laws.
- although such laws (and executive orders) can be traced back to the Civil Rights Act of 1866, you must know six laws thoroughly.

1. the equal pay act of 1963 requires equal pay for men and women performing work that invovles similar skill, responsibility and working conditions

2. the civil rights act of 1964, particularly title VII, prohibits the selection of employees based on race, color, gender, religion, or national origin, and requires employers to discover discriminatory practices and eliminate them

3. the age discrimination in employment act of 1967 prohibits employers of 25 or more persons from discriminating against persons bc of age

4. the rehabilitation act of 1973 (sections 501 and 505) orders federal contractors to hire persons with disabilities, including alcoholism, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and epilepsy

5. the civil rights act of 1991 (often referred to as 1992 civil rights act) caps compensation and punitive damages for employers, provides for jury trial, and created a commission to investigate the "glass ceiling" for minorities and women and reward orgs that advance opportunities for minorities and women.

6. the americans with disabilities act of 1990 (effective July 25, 1992), Title I and Title V, prohibits discrimination against ppl with physical or mental impairments that substantially limit or restrict the condition, manner or duration under which they can perform one or more life activities and requires reasonable accommodation by employers.

8

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Reviewing EEO Laws

- understanding and complying with EEO laws is good for business. aging baby booms and senior citizens bring valuable experiences to positions, know what they can and can't do, are willing to take the initiative, are loyal, have a willingness to learn, adjust and adapt as they have for many years, show patience and hang in there, when facing difficult situations and relationships, are good listeners, have the ability to get the job done.
- not hiring these ppl in the first place bc of age is not only unlawful but may deprive your org of valuable resources
- unintentional violations are STILL violations

9

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Compliance with EEO Laws

- although EEO laws have been in effect for decades, interviewers continue to violate them knowingly and unknowingly.
- 70% of 200 recruiters for fortune 500 companies thought at least 5 of 12 unlawful questions were safe to ask.
- 12% thought it was acceptable to ask q's about political beliefs, 27% about family background, 30% about candidate's spouse, 45% about candidates personal life.
- job discrimination cases rose to an all-time high (more than 95,000) during the recession of 2008-2010 due in large part to mass layoffs and scarce hiring. the leading charges were race, gender, age, and disability discrimination
- numerous EEO laws would seem to complicate the employee recruiting/selecting process, but complying with them is simple.
- everything you do, say, or ask during a the selection process must pertain to bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs), requirements essential for performing a particular job.
- BFOQs include work experiences, training, education, skills, conviction records, physical attributes, and personality traits that have a direct bearing on one's ability to perform a job effectively.
- BFOQs exclude gender, race, religion, marital status, physical appearance, disabilities, citizenship, place of birth, ethnic group, veteran status, military records, military discharge status, and arrest records that have no bearing on one's ability to perform a job effectively.

10

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Compliance with EEO Laws

- exceptions to laws and orders are made when an employer can demonstrate that one or more normally unlawful traits are essential for a position
- for example, appearance may be a BFOQ for a modeling position, religion for a pastoral position, age for performing certain tasks (alcohol serving, operating dangerous equipment), physical abilities such as eyesight and manual dexterity for pilots, physical strength for construction workers, the legal right to be employed in the US, and English language skills for an English teacher.
- you can avoid EEO violations and possible lawsuits from your employer if you take advantages of training your org officers, review sources readily available in professional journals and the Internet, and take an online course designed to help you comply with EEO laws and guidelines.
- BFOQs are the keys to nondiscriminatory hiring
- EEO violations are easy to avoid
- they offer practical suggestions such as shaking hands with a person who is disable, not pushing a wheelchair unless asked, identifying yourself and others invovled in the interview if the applicant is blind, and using physical signals, facial expressions and note passing if an applicant is hearing impaired.
- sources help you keep up-to-date in laws and situations
- for ex., a number of our students from the military reserve and active military units that were called to duty in the wars in Iraq have informed us that recruiters have asked them about the type of military discharge they received. this is an unlawful q bc it is not job-related and may delve into an applicants medical record or disability.

11

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Compliance with EEO Laws

- a few guidelines will help you avoid most EEO violations and lawsuits.
- first, meet the test of job relatedness by establishing legally defensible criteria.
- second, be sure all questions are related to these selection criteria
- third, standardize the interview by asking the same questions for all applicants for a position. if you ask specific questions only of applicants that are female, disabled, older or minority, you are undoubtedly asking unlawful questions
- fourth, be cautious when probing into answers bc a significant number of EEO violations occur in these created on the spot probing questions
- fifth, be cautious of innocent chit chat during the informal part of interviews, usually the opening and closing or the minutes following the formal interview. this is when you are most likely to ask or comment about family, marital status, ethnic background, and nonprofessional memberships.
- sixth, focus q's on what applicants CAN do rather than on what an applicant cannot do.
- seventh, if an applicant begins to volunteer unlawful info, tactfully steer back to the job related areas.
- focus on the positive, not the negative
- treat applicants as you would want to be treated.

12

Keep These Rules in Mind When Recruiting:

- federal laws supersede state laws unless the state laws are more restrictive
- the equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) and the courts are not concerned with intent but with effect
- advertise each position where all qualified applicants have a reasonable opportunity to learn about the opening
- your org is liable if unlawful info is maintained or used even if you did not ask for it
- do no write or take notes on the application form. doodling on an applications form may appear to be a discriminatory code.
- accepting or keeping unlawful info creates liability for the company, even if the info was not requested.
- three recent concerns have arisen in the law: domestic partners, same-sex marriages, and hearing as a disability. an appropriate response is "we hire persons based on what they know and how well they can do the job, not on personal preferences or disabilities." organizations should be prepared to enhance volumes on phones and computers.
- EEO laws generally pertain to all employers of 15 or more people.

13

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Developing an Applicant Profile

- with EEO laws in mind, conduct a thorough analysis to develop a competency-based applicant profile for the position for which you are recruiting.
- this profile of the ideal employee typically includes specific skills, abilities, education, training, experiences, knowledge levels, personal characteristics, and interpersonal relationships that enable a person to fulfill a position with a high degree of excellence.
- the intent is to measure all applicants against this profile to ensure that recruiting efforts meet EEO laws, are as objective as possible, encourage all interviewers to cover the same topics and traits, and eliminate (or at least minimize) the birds of the feather syndrome in which recruiters favor applicants who are most like themselves- traditionally this have favored male applicants.
- the a profile must be a composite of BFOQs
- the profile is the ideal by which all applicants should be measured.

14

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Developing an Applicant Profile

- a rapidly growing number of organizations are employing a behavior-based selection technique to ensure that each interviewer asks questions that match each applicant with the applicant profile.
- behavior-based interviewing rests on two interrelated principles: past behavior in specific-job related situations is the best predictor of future behavior and past performance is the best prediction of future performance.
- interviewers ask interviewees to describe situations in which they have exhibited specific skills and abilities.
- a national institute of health publication states that the behavior-based interview technique seeks to uncover how a potential employee actually did behave in a given situation; not on how he or she might behave in the future"
- the behavior-based techniques begins with needs and position analysis to determine which behaviors are essential for performing a particular situation:

behaviors might include:
- develops and implements
- monitors and facilitates
- applies
- stays current
- advises and consults
- conducts
- establishes
- builds
- understands and utilizes
- recommends

15

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Developing an Applicant Profile

- other organizations have modified this approach into a trait-based or talent-based system in which specific traits or talents rather than behaviors are identified in a position analysis. traits might include:
- achievement
- ambition
- assertiveness
- competitiveness
- dependability
- initiative
- listening
- motivation
- oral communication
- people-oriented
- responsibility
- responsiveness
- regardless of the means you use, check each profile behavior or trait carefully. is each essential for excellent job performance? is leadership necessary for an entry level position? can you measure the behavior or trait? are you expecting recruiters to act as physiologists?
- traits such as competitiveness, aggressiveness, direct eye contact, forcefulness and oral communication skills may run counter to the upbringing and culture of many non dominant groups
- traits and behaviors being sought must be position-related - BFOQs - and clearly defined so that all interviewers are looking for the same ones.
- once you've developed an applicant profile, write a clear description that encapsulates requirements for a given position.
- ultimately, the job description is the inspiration for any subsequent interview so defining the position up front will make finding the right person for a job easier. being underprepared is the biggest mistake you can make.

16

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Assessing What Applicants Want

- what do they desire in a position and career?
- young college educated applicants are very different from those of 10 to 20 yrs ago. while they are interested in career paths and steady employment, the thought of remaining with one org until receiving the gold watch is unrealistic to most. applicants are more interested in strong reputations than in brand name.
- while specifics of salary and benefits are of concern to young job applicants, they are no longer the keys to job and organization attraction as they once were.
- they are more interested in the environment and culture of an organization, mentoring, stress training programs, tuition assistance for graduate work toward a MBA for ex., and career development opportunities.
- the new workforce fully understands that diversity is reality. they expect and welcome working with a range of educations, ages, races and ethnic groups. political and geographical boundaries pose few obstacles since many have traveled, studied and worked abroad.
- applicants are increasingly information-driven

17

Preparing the Recruiting Effort:

Assessing What Applicants Want - What Do They Desire in an Interview?

- they have clear preferences in interviews. their decisions are significantly affected by their satisfaction with the communication that takes place, their attraction to the interviewer is the strongest predictor of their attraction to an organization.
- they view the recruiter's behavior as a model of what to expect from an employer, so a negative experience may eliminate an organization from further consideration
- they expect interviewers to be friendly, attentive, sensitive, warm, honest, enthusiastic, straightforward, personable, and genuinely interested in them.
- they don't want to be interruption or pressured.
- they prefer interviewers to act and talk naturally without reading q's, being stuck to a schedule or giving canned presentations
- they want interviewers to be professions who know what they are talking about.
- non-dominant group applicants - women, minorities, lower class - said they are more comfortable and communicate more openly and feel better understood and evaluated by interviewers more like them.
- on the other hand, this openness and relief may turn to confusion, anger and guarded interactions if they feel scrutinized by one of their own.
- want interviewers to ask them relevant, open q's and give them chances for self-expression
- they like interviewers to offer limited disclosure to avoid shifting the focus away from the applicant. and they want detailed info that is relevant to org and position

18

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants

- after planning is completed and the recruitment underway, gather as much info as possible about each applicant through application forms, resumes, letters of recommendation, objective tests, and social networks
- review this info carefully to gain a clear view of your relationship with the applicant
- fist chance to determine how well this person fits the position you have open and your orgs unique culture
- this review reveals areas to probe during the interview, perhaps comparing oral and written answers to similar q's
- employers who review applicant's credentials thoroughly ask more q's, ask a wider variety of q's, and probe into more answers. the result is a better determination of applicant fit.

19

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Application Forms

- design application forms with EEO laws and the applicant profile in mind. avoid traditional categories that violate EEO guidelines such as gender, age, race, ethnicity, national origin, marital status, physical characteristics, arrest records, type of military discharge, and request for a picture.
- include a few open ended q's similar to ones you will ask during the interview. be sure to provide adequate space for applicants to answer all q's thoroughly. look for what is and is not reported on the form, how applicants respond to open-ended q's, and gaps in dates of employment and education.

20

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Cover Letters

- often initial contact with an applicant
- read it carefully
- too often applicants send out dozens or hundreds of cover letters seeking interviews for positions they aren't qualified in education or experience

21

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Resumes

- usually enclosed with the cover letter or attached as an email
- review is well prior to the interview
- reading a resume for the first time in front of the applicant sends a clear message about a lack of preparedness and a lack of importance
- delete unlawful info from resume (picture, age, marital status, religious organizations, etc) before any person invovled in the recruitment effort can see it
- if you keep this info-even though you didn't ask/request for it- you can be held liable for possible discrimination
- assess how well the applicant's education, training and experiences complement the stated career objective and the applicant profile.
- "red flags" recruiters should look for in resumes:
- employment gaps without specific dates, lack of attention to details (missing words, typos, cut-and-paste errors, wrong dates), lack of customization to your job posting, overqualified for the position and unusual employment history.
- be aware that a significant percent of applicants cheat on their resumes
- lies include college degrees they don't have, inflated job titles, made up experiences, exaggerated current salaries, padded dates to mask employment gaps, fake employers, etc.
- incentive to lie on resume: being trapped in miserable job, not having education, experiences, skills required of necessary applicants in 21st century, and the Peter Principle in which ppl have been promoted to their levels of incompetence and now face the proverbial glass ceiling, demotion and dismissal.
- can use applicant tracking software programs if you're hiring a large number of new staff
- this will scan resumes quickly while identifying applicants best suited
- sorts applicants based on key words, skills, interests and experiences

22

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Letters of Recommendation & References

- review these with skepticism bc they are written by ppl that are friends or admirers
- rarely contain negative info; it does reveal ppl the applicant knows who will write letters and add bits of info about how well the applicant fits the profile
- references are also usually chosen carefully to guarantee a favorable recommendation
- fears are lawsuits have led many orgs to formulate policies that allow them to give only the dates on which the applicant attended school or way employed.
- orgs may require interviewers to get permission from applicants before contacting references and such
- chose those not close enough to lie for them but close enough to have an opinion of the applicants worth

23

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Standardized Tests

- supplement to reviewing credentials and conducting interviews
- becoming a standard practice in recruiting process
- behavior-based interview is so common today is also more effective when combined with employment tests, many of which are administered online.
- companies claim their products deliver results, measure the fit between job and candidate, and avoid the subjective bias on the interview.
- be sure the test is job-related or tailored, validated on a cross-section population, and non-discriminatory
- it a test seems to screen out one group more than another, don't use it.
- the EEOC has investigated complains that some tests have an adverse impact on black and Mexican applicants, require a proficiency in English that could discriminate other candidates who are not native speakers and violate the americans with disabilities act by requiring re-employment medical exams or detecting conditions such as depression and paranoia

24

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Standardized Tests

1. Aptitude Test
2. Personality Test
3. Basic Skills Test
4. Honesty Test

1. Aptitude Test: identify the abilities of potential employees and attempt to predict how well and quickly a person is likely to learn tasks required in the job you wish to fill. sometimes called IQ or intelligence tests. don't measure the all-important and elusive variable called "common sense"
2. Personality Test: asses ppl skills along with personality traits and personality types. best know: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). also Wilson Analogy Test and Miller Analogy Test identify the reasoning and critical thinking skills of applicants
3. Basic Skills Test: appear to be declining when they are more important than ever. measures math, measurements, reading, spelling, etc. the essential skills when ppl or teams are required to write up problems with machines or groups. some pose a problem and require person to write 5-7 sentences describing the issue. use common formula to check spelling, sentence structure, verb tests, clarity, readability
4. Honesty Test: assess ethics, honesty integrity of person through paper and pencil tests or integrity interviews. while they may screen out some undesirable applicants, they may also screen on a tremendous amount or perfectly honest, upstanding citizens. make sure to have them thoroughly validated on a cross-section of american population to avoid charges of discrimination

- Integrity interviews may assess honesty and integrity of potential employees. outguessing: applicants cheerfully adit to unethical activities bc they think they are normal and everyone does it. two formats: one is highly structured that focus on ethics and integrity by delving into previous work experience directly related to position available. second, if previous work experience is unavailable, the interviewer poses situational q's using specific dimensions of ethical and honest behavior

25

Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants:

Social Media

- many applicants use blogs, websites, etc. that reveal a great deal of info about them.
- much of this info has nothing to do with their qualifications for a position but may tell you more about how well they would fit into the orgs culture, including their motivations, work habits, attitudes and future plans.
- it's easy to access this info and some employers routinely ask applicants for their social networking passwords.
- be careful. congress tired to unsuccessfully pass legislation that would make it illegal for employers to ask for passwords in 2012
- some states are now considering their own legislation
- tread lightly. snooping into web sites can reveal personal characteristics such as age, race, gender, disabilities, marital status and sexual orientation that violate EEO laws
- consider asking in advance if the candidate has any online presence they'd like you to check out

26

Conducting the Interview:

Atmosphere and Setting

- establish environment that is conducive to sharing info as well as feelings, attitudes and motivations
- comfortable, quiet, a private location that minimizes noise interruptions
- choose seating that maximizes interpersonal interactions
- close door, turn of phones, computers and beepers
- sometimes you may not have access to such location. recruiters have conducted interviews in hotel lobbies, steps, hallways, restaurants, bars, at open houses in ballrooms, park benches and job fairs. make the best of what you're dealt with
- approach every interview as it's the day's top priority
- be positive, attentive bc it plays a critical role in attracting and selecting quality ppl
- the interview is a two-way street - the applicant is "interviewing" the company for a fit as well
- applicants don't distinguish you from your organization. more likely to accept offers if they see you to be a good representative of the org.
- be open and honest. that's what you demand of applicants
- practice conscious transparency in which you share info with applicants, explain purpose of q's, and promote dialogue through a supportive climate

27

Interview Parties

- chain format: one recruiter may talk with an applicant for 15-20 mins, developing a general impression of background, and then passes the applicant along for a second recruiter who probes into specific job skills, third recruiter may then focus on technical job skills. common in "plant" or "on site" and determinate interviews that follow the screening process
- team, panel or board of two to five recruiters who interview and applicant at the same time. more effective in predicting job experiences than one-on-one. good for cross-cultural interviews to eliminate bias and assure understanding
- group interviews: involve several members of organization subset such as faculty from academic department, PR department, or IT specialists. gives a wide variety of potential q's asked
- seminar: one or more recruiters interview several ppl at the same time; takes less time, allows them to see several ppl replying at once, may provide valuable insights into how applicants work with others, etc. applicants should see the interview as a opportunity to build on other's comments while revealing their qualifications, NOT a competition

28

Opening Interview

- establish rapport: greet applicant by name in a warm, friendly voice with a firm handshake. introduce yourself and your position in the org. don't ask applicant to call you by your first name. very important in cross-cultural interviews. establish a relationship build on trust, understanding and acceptance from the first moments it starts and remember that speaking the same language doesn't mean sharing the same culture.
- engage in small talk ab non-controversial issue but don't fall into casual convo or prolong over-worn questions about weather and such. prolonged chatting like this can heighten tensions by creating anxiety and suspense
- orientation: tell the applicant about how the interview will proceed usually the recruiter asks q's, provides info about org and position, and the applicant asks q's
- giving info first may delay active involvement of the applicant and may communicate that the recruiter intends to dominate the interview
- tell how long it will take and how long will you devote to each part. if it takes place on-site provide person with agenda for visit and names/positions of ppl who will be invovled in selection process
- while the traditional approach has been interviewer controlled, recruiters are suggesting an interviewee controlled approach. allow the prospective employee to take control, that's what you're hiring them for isn't it?

29

Body of Interview

- unstructured interviews do not recruit top-quality applicants
- sources differ on how structured the body of an interview should be but research shows that recruiting highly qualified candidates is most successful with highly structured formats
- non-structured formats have the interviewer talking more than the interviewee and lead to numerous hazards and interviewers tend to make their decisions too quick. also likely to ask q's that violate EEO laws
- highly structured interviews are more reliable but less flexible and adaptable. questions are prepared and tested ahead of time and posted to each applicant without variation.
- more reliable bc all applicants are asked the same thing or very similar q's and recruiters must pay close attention throughout the whole interview instead of the first few minutes.
- orgs may employ a highly structured interview focused on specific traits in the applicant profile (interpersonal skills, computer expertise, team experience, etc) or an interview guide (can the person do the job, will the person fit into the org, etc)

30

Body of Interview

- behavior based method focuses on job-related skills
- it is very common. an org may develop a highly structured interview that provides a skillful patterning and selecting of questions, recording of responses, and rating of applicants on behaviorally based dimensions
- build in insightful secondary questions

31

Question Sequences:

- select on or more appropriate for interview; normally means funnel, inverted funnel or tunnel sequence
- inverted funnel sequence by asking close primary q's during the early minutes of the interview and open-ended probing q's in the later minutes. enables recruiters to test applicants and then switch to a funnel sequence with ppl they perceive to be most qualified.

32

Common Question Pitfalls:

1. The Evaluative Response
2. The EEO Violation
3. The Resume or Application Form Question

1. The Evaluative Response:
- the interviewer expresses judgmental feelings about an answer that may bias or skew the next response
- boy, i'll bet you regret that decision
- that wasn't a good reason to quit a job, was it?
- that was a mistake, wasn't it?
- evaluative response is when the interviewer expresses judgmental feelings to see your reaction
- will lead to safe, superficial answers

33

Common Question Pitfalls:

2. The EEO Violation

- interviewer asks an unlawful question
- how often do you attend church?
- how does your prosthetic leg hamper you in driving long distances?
- what will you do if your husband gets transferred?

34

Common Question Pitfalls:

3. The Resume or Application Form Question

- the interviewer asks questions that are already answered on the resume or application form
- where do you get your degree?
- have you studied abroad?
- what internships have you had?

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Traditional Questions

- the following are traditional questions that avoid pitfalls and gather important job-related info
- revolve around those that we are most familiar with such as education background, career goals, ability to work with others, etc.

Interest in the organization:
- why would you like to work for us?
- what have you read about our org?
- what do you know about our products/services?

Work related (general)
- tell me about the position that have given you most satisfaction
- what did you do that was innovative in your last job?

Work related (specific)
- describe a strategy you use to motivate people
- how do you follow up on work assigned to subordinates?

- teams and teamwork
- education and training
- career paths and goals
- performance
- salary and benefits
- career field

36

Nontraditional Questions "on-the-job" questions

- involve a number of different scenarios including behavior-based questions. they might revolve around past experiences, critical incidents, hypothetical questions, a case approach, giving back information
- when recruiters came to realize that most traditional q's fail to assess how an applicant has dealt with work situations, they began to implement a variety of new "on the job" question strategies

37

Nontraditional Questions:

Behavior-Based Q's

- ask q's about past experiences in which applicants have handled situations that are related to the position
- tell me about an idea of yours that was implemented primarily through your efforts
- how did you handle a past situation where the rules were changed at the last minute?
- tell me about most difficult relationship with a team member. how did you handle it?
- describe a time when you experienced a setback in class, sport or job, how did you handle it?
- tell me about a situation in which you had to deal with an irate customer or client
- give me an ex. of how you sold an unpopular idea to fellow workers

38

Nontraditional Questions:

Critical Incident Questions

- recruiters select actual incidents that are occurring or have occurred on the job within their org and ask applicants how they would deal with or or would have handled such incidents
- we are experiencing a growing problem of waste in our milling operation. how would you handle this if we hired you?
- we are experiencing a decline in sales of our traditional products, what would you suggest we do about it?
- last year there was a lot of strife among our sales staff, if you had been with us - what would have you done?

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Nontraditional Questions:

Hypothetical Questions

- often criticize bc they are posed unrealistic and even silly situations like "how would you go about counting all of the golf balls in the U.S?"
- like critical incident q's, can be valuable tools in recruiting ppl
- these are useful bc they raise q's and situations that the candidate has never confronted and for which the candidate cannot be prepared for in advance.
- recruiter creates highly realistic but hypothetical questions/situations and asks applicants how they would deal with them.
- suppose you're suspicious that some workers are doctoring their time cards. what would you do?
- if your company suddenly announced that it was closing your facility at the end of the month, what would you do?
- if a female employee came to you claiming sexual sexual harassment, what would you do?

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Nontraditional Questions:

Case Approach

- most realistic on-the-job question format.
- applicant is place into a carefully crafted situation that may take hours to study and resolve. it could be personnel, management, design or production problem.
- some are elaborate simulations that require role playing and may involve several ppl, including other applicants.

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Nontraditional Questions:

Probing Questions

- no matter how well you phrase a traditional, behavior-based, critical incident or hypothetical q, it is seldom enough to accept an initial response and move onto your next primary q
- listen carefully to what is and is not said and then probe. silent and nudging can be effective bc ppl will feel less threatened and more respected.
- often you need to drill down for specifics with carefully phrased probing q's to explore suggestions and implications, meanings and force ppl to move beyond safe superficial level 1 answers to get at feelings, motivations preferences, knowledge etc.
- remember, there are always two applicants in an interview, the real and the make believe. your task is to determine how much of what you see and hear is a facade and how much is genuine
- unfortunately, extensive probing is not without pitfalls.

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Giving Information

- information is the primary interest of applicants
- giving information before and during the interview is a major determinant of applicant satisfaction
- before you begin to give information, however, ask two important transition questions "what do you know about this position" "what do you know about our organization?"
- answers to these questions show first how much homework the applicant has done, revealing the level of interest and work ethic.
- second they tell you what they applicant already knows about the position and the org so you can begin where the persons knowledge leaves off
- this prevents you from giving info the applicant already knows or is on your website.
- give adequate information to facilitate the matching process between the organization and the applicant. info about your orgs reputation, org environment, the position, typical work day and advancement opportunities are the most important factors in acceptance of job offers.
- you can compare your organization to competitors, but don't be negative
- sell the advantages of your organization to the applicant but DON'T BE NEGATIVE
- sell the advantages the position offers but avoid exaggerating or intentionally hiding negative aspects of the position or org. don't inflate applicant's expectations
- these practices result in high rates of employee dissatisfaction and turnover. avoid gossiping.
- minimize "you" in the interview
- while you want to inform applicants well, your info giving must not be dominating the interview. you will learn more about an applicant when listening instead of always talking.
- practice good com. skills bc applicants may judge the authenticity of info by how it's communicated verbal and NV
- encourage applicants to ask questions about information you are giving so you know it is being communicated accurately and effectively.
- do not overload applicants with info
organize your info systematically and logically.

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Evaluating the Interview

- the evaluation process follows the interview
- the interviewers usually review standardized and open question responses.
- both interviewer and interviewee should evaluate their respective performance following a session to be better prepared for the next opportunity whenever that might be.
- take notes during the interview bc this increases recall and judgement accuracy. review your thoughts and notes carefully and then record your reactions to each applicant as soon as possible.
- build in time between interviews for this purpose. orgs may provide recruiters with standardize evaluation forms to match applicants with the applicant profile for each position
- interview evaluation often consists of: a set of standardized questions, and space for comments.
- the standardized part consists of bona fide occupational qualifications for each position that enable you to determine how well the applicant matches these qualifications. focus on the applicant's qualifications, not random factors.
- study shows that recruiters often chose applicants on the basis of voices and regional accents. those identified with specific regions by accent were less likely to be chosen for high profile jobs
- what are the applicants strengths/weaknesses for the position?
- how does the applicant compare to others for this position?
- what makes them a good for the org?
- use the evaluation stage to assess your interviewing skills and performance.
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Summary

- the recruiting interview can be an effective means of selecting employees, but it takes preparation that includes knowledge of state and federal EEO laws, an applicant profile, review of information on applicants, and developing a carefully structured interview.
- preparation must be followed by a thoroughly professional interview that includes an effective opening, skillful questioning, probing into answers, thorough information giving, honest and detailed answers to questions and an effective closing.
- you must practice communication skills that include language selection, NV communication (silence, voice, eye contact, facial expressions, posture and gestures) listening and empathy.
- when the interview is concluded, conduct evaluations of the applicant and yourself. the first focuses on the applicant's suitability and fit and the second on your effectiveness as recruiter and evaluator.