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Flashcards in Ch. 11 - Interviewing Deck (36):

The Counseling Interview

- this is one of he most sensitive interviews bc it occurs only when a person feels incapable or unsure of handling a personal problem. the problem may be work performance, grades, finances, relationships, health etc.
- the purpose of the counseling interviewer is to assist a person in gaining insight into and ways of coping with the problem, not to resolve the problem for them
- ultimately the person with the problem must resolve it. that's why many sources refer to the counseling interview as the helping interview
- relatively few ppl are highly trained counselors or therapists, but nearly all of us counsel or help co-workers, friends, family members, students, neighbors and fellow members of org when they approach us with a problem or concern and ask us to listen, offer a bit of advice, or help them cope with a situation
- your formal training in counseling may range from none to several hours in training sessions and workshops to prepare you for your helping role as a member of the clergy, a physician, a lawyer, or a funeral service director.
- experts in crisis management claim that in a time of crisis, everyone is a resource.
- the so called lay counselor with minimal training has proven to be quite successful, partly because people seeking help trust people similar to them and appear to be open, caring and good listeners.
- nearly every state as a CASA court appointed special advocate program in which carefully selected volunteers undergo hours of training and then become advocates for children who have been abused or neglected. they get to know these children thoroughly and serve as their voice in court.


Ethics and the Counseling Interview

- ethics is at the heart of every counseling interview, and it's not unusual for counselors to face difficult ethical dilemmas such as maintaining appropriate boundaries with subordinates and know when to say no to a request for help.
- the preamble to the "code of ethics" of the American Counseling Association (ACA) specifies that through a chosen ethical decision making process and evaluation of the context of the situation, counselors are empowered to make decisions that help expand the capacity of ppl to grow and develop. a variety of resources on counseling offer many guidelines for this decision making process.


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Establish and Maintain Trust

- you must establish trust with the party you wish to help, what the ACA identifies as the cornerstone of the counseling relationship. the potential value of a sound relationship base can not be overlooked bc the relationship is the specific part of the process that conveys the counselor's interest in and acceptance of the client as a unique and worthwhile person and builds sufficient trust for eventual self disclosure and self revelations to occur.
- trust and safety is clearly the most important because it is the core trait or essential element of the counseling interview.
- without trust, no interview is likely to occur.
one study found that ppl yet contemplating change, compared to those that are contemplating change, already engaged in change, or maintaining previous changes, have significantly lower expectations of help and the interviewer's acceptance, genuineness and trustworthiness.
- to establish and sustain trust, you must show that you are trustworthy. be genuinely interested in the person seeking help and prove that you respect the person's privacy. keep interactions strictly confidential so the interviewee can disclose his or her innermost thoughts and concerns without fear that you will relate these to others. honor all commitments you make.
- trust is the keystone to effective counseling


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Act in the Interviewee's Best Interest

- all of your efforts to help must be in the other's best interest. know if the person is capable of making sound choices and decisions. encourage interviewees to make decisions within their personal beliefs, attitudes and values. respect the other's dignity as you strive to promote this person's welfare.
- some authorities on counseling claim that an interviewer's self disclosure of personal experiences and background helps the the interviewee to gain insights and new perspectives for making changes bc of an equalized relationship and reassurance.
- on the other hand, others warn that while sharing personal stories may be powerful, this sharing may appear to be self-indulgent to the interviewee and detract from the interviewee's own experiences.
- provide info necessary for the interviewee to make informed decisions and choices. this requires you to be well informed ab relevant information on this person's socioeconomic status, education, work history, family background, group memberships, medical and psychological history, test results and past issues and courses of action/
- talk to ppl who know the interviewee well such as instructors, employers counselors family members friends and coworkers to gain insights into the interviewee that will guide you when conducting the counseling interview
- asses info from others carefully. all of us have formed negative, defensive or wary attitudes towards a person bc of what others have told us only to discover the opposite was true when we interacted directly with this person. beware of preconceptions that may lead you to prejudge an interviewee or formulate a defensive or antagonistic approach. be particularly cautious when working with children.
- always respect the other party's dignity and worth.


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Understand Your Limitations

- be realistic ab your counseling skills and limitations, and do not try to handle situations for which you have neither the training nor the experience. self awareness is an important aspect of competence and involves a balanced assessment of our strengths and limitations.
- know when to refer the interviewee to a person with greater counseling skills and expertise. for instance, a teacher must be able to detect when a student needs psychological or medical rather than academic help.
- skills counselors are open minded, optimistic, self assured, relaxed, flexible and patient. they are people centered rather than problem centered. they are sensitive to others' needs and are able to communicate understanding, warmth, comfort and reassurance.
they give interviewees undivided and focused attention. provide verbal and nonverbal responses and they are excellent listeners
- listening is the most crucial helping skill
- society provides us with euphemisms for vagina, breasts, penis, intercourse rape, and masturbation. how comfortable are you with using proper terms and names for conditions, actions and body parts. your unease is likely to become apparent to the interviewer and stifle disclosure and communication.


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Do Not Impose Your Beliefs, Attitudes and Values

- you bring you entire self to each counseling interview, including your personality, beliefs, attitudes, values and experiences. be aware of the importance of the values you hold and how they compare to the values of the interviewee. the value of both parties affect all aspects of the counseling interview.
- in other words, can you restrain your personal beliefs, needs and attitudes so as not to become argumentative or defensive and not to impose your will on the interviewee? you must be able to work jointly in devising plans and courses of action.
- anyone who feels they can operate from a value neutral perspective is deeply mistaken. you transmit your values through dress, appearance, eye contact, manner and words. although it is impossible to be value neutral or value free, you must strive to understand and respect the interviewee's values that may be very different from your own. can you set aside your values or suspend judgement so you can conduct a successful and helping interview?


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Respect Diversity

- you must understand and respect the interviewee's culture and how it differs from your own bc cultural differences may have a variety of effects on your counseling interview. merely being culturally aware is not adequate.
- culture controls our lives and defines reality for us, with our without our permission and or intentional awareness. when you think of the word culture you may focus on gender, race, ethnicity, and national origin but it is recommended that helpers regard all conversations with clients as cross-cultural. add sexual orientation, socioeconomic class, geographical area, religion or spirituality, physical and mental abilities and family form to your list.
- if you feel that you aren't prepared for cross-cultural counseling, seek training and assistances from skilled counselors. interviewers who are racially unaware must obtain sufficient training in becoming multiculturally competent.
- such training should emphasize racial and cultural self awareness, knowledge ab other racial and cultural groups in the context of interpersonal interactions and skill development in terms of intervening with clients in a culturally appropriate manner.
- improve cultural awareness by avoiding generalizations and stereotypes; there is diversity among diversity
- try to meet ppl where they are, not where you think they ought to be.
- don't assume the correct values belong to your culture exclusively. when there is a match of world views btwn interviewer and interviewee, good working relationships are established and interviewees feel more understood. a mismatch may hinder the relationship.
- on the other hand, don't assume cultural differences override all other considerations in counseling interviews. qualities intrinsic to the personalities, attitudes and nonverbal behaviors of interviewers than gender or ethnic group membership-largely account for counseling effectiveness.
- strive to be more than "culturally aware"


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Maintain Relational Boundaries

- must maintain appropriate relationship, particularly when you have an administrative, supervisory or evaluative role. be careful when you are trying to help a student, person of another gender, or a subordinate.
- as a teacher, your goal is to help this child deal with an academic, social or family issue, not to become a surrogate parent. avoid doing or saying anything that may be interpreted as sexual or authoritative harassment. maintain respect with the client and realize that any form of intimacy may pose major problems for both parties
- maintain an emotional distance. it's an easy step from emotional to sexual involvement. we see this too often in the news when male or female teachers have affairs with under-aged students. know where the boundaries are.
- don't destroy your own family while trying to help others like many have done by coming too emotionally or sexually involved.


Ethics and the Counseling Interview:

Do No Harm

- we have saved this code of ethics until last because, in a very real sense, it encompasses the others. be aware of dangers in trying to help others. always act within the boundaries of your competence to avoid giving bad or ill-informed.
- regardless of the advice you give, you may be blamed for outcomes or lack of them. behave legally, morally, and ethically at all times. know when to refer the person to a professional with greater counseling and specialized skills
- the national board of certified counselors offers this rule of conduct that is particularly relevant in light of recent violent attacks and sexual molestation in orgs, schools, businesses, theaters, and shopping centers perpetrated by disturbed individuals who had sought counseling or revealed intentions to others
- although addressed to certified counselors, its a rule that's wise for all of us to follow. when a client's conditions indicates there is a clear and imminent danger to the client and others, the certified counselor must take reasonable action to inform potential victims or and responsible authorities


Prepare Thoroughly for the Counseling Interview

Anticipate Questions and Responses

- if you know an interviewee thoroughly prior to the interview, you may anticipate and respond effectively to common comments and questions such as the following:
- if I need help I'll let you know, I can take care of myself, I need to get back to work, Why should I discuss my problems with you, You won't understand, Don't tell mom and dad, No one knows how I feel, Get off my back, I can't afford to take time off, You don't know what it's like being a student, parent, patient or teacher, etc.
- the more thoroughly you have analyzed the interviewee, the more likely you are to know WHY a person is reacting in a certain why and how to reply effectively.
- if an interviewee asks for help without notice or explanation and you have no relational history with this person, rely on your training and experiences to discover what is bothering the person and how you might help.
- don't assume you know why a person is calling, showing up at at your door, or bringing up a topic. ask open ended questions that enable the interviewee to explain the purpose of the interview. listen carefully for info and insights that will enable you to help this person
- listen rather than talk and be prepared for rejections of offers to counsel.


Prepare Thoroughly for the Counseling Interview

Consider Interviewing Approaches

- determine if directive or nondirective approach is more suitable for the interviewee and situation at hand. each has it advantages and disadvantages.
- the sensitive and potentially explosive nature of the counseling interview necessitates a careful selection of approaches.


Consider Interviewing Approaches

Directive Approach

- when using a directive approach, you control the structure of the interview, subject matter, pace of interactions and length of interview.
- you collect and share info, define and analyze the issues, suggest and evaluate solutions, and provide guidelines for actions.
- in brief, you serve as an expert or consultant who analyzes problems and provides guidelines for actions
- the interviewee is a reactor and recipient rather than and equal or major player in the interaction. the directive approach is based on the assumption that you know more about the problem than the interviewee and are better suited to analyze it and recommend solutions.
- the accuracy of this assumption, of course, depends on you, the interviewee and the situation.
- know when to maintain control and when to let go.


Consider Interviewing Approaches

Nondirective Approach

- the interviewee controls the structure of the interview, determines the topics, decides when and how they will be discussed, ands sets the pace and length of interview
- you assist the interviewee in obtaining info, gaining insights, defining and analyzing problems, and discovering and evaluating solutions.
- you listen, observe and encourage but do not impose ideas.
- most sources prefer a nondirective approach to counseling and emphasize the interviewer's role as engaging, exploring, encouraging, listening, understanding, affirming, reassuring, and validating rather than ordering, confronting, directing, warning, threatening, cautioning and judging.
- this approach is based on the assumption that the interviewee is more capable than you of analyzing problems, assessing issues and solutions, making correct decisions, etc. the interviewee must implement recommendations and solutions.
- the accuracy of this assumption, like the directive assumption, depends on you, the interviewee and the situation.
- the interviewee may know nothing about the problem or potential solutions, or worse, may be misinformed about both. the interviewee's problem may not be lack of information or misinformation but the inability to visualize a current or future problem or make sound decisions.
- you serve as an objective, neutral referee, presenting pros and cons of specific courses of actions.
- distinguish between when you are serving as expert advisor and when, perhaps subtly and unintentionally, you are imposing personal preferences.
- don't assume a problem is lack of information.
- the interviewee may prefer a directive (highly structured) interview approach. a study of Asian American students showed that when career counselors used a directive approach, students saw them as more empathetic, culturally competent, and providing concrete guidance the produced immediate benefits.


Consider Interviewing Approaches

Combination of Approaches

- many counseling interviews employ a combo of directive and nondirective approaches. you may begin with a nondirective approach to encourage the interviewee to talk and reveal the problem and its causes.
- then you may switch to a more directive approach when discussing possible solutions or courses of action
- a directive approach (highly structured) is best for obtaining facts, giving information and making diagnoses
- a nondirective approach tends to open up large areas and bring out a great deal of spontaneous information


Prepare Thoroughly for the Counseling Interview

Select a Structure

- no standard structural format for the counseling interview, but the "sequential phase model" is applicable is most counseling situations.
- they developed this structure originally from handling calls to campus and community crisis centers.

1. establish a helpful climate (affective/emotional)
- making contact
- defining roles
- developing a relationship

2. assessment of crisis (cognitive/thinking)
- accepting info
- encouraging info
- restating info
- questioning for info

3. affect integration (affective/emotional)
- accepting feelings
- encouraging feelings
- reflecting feelings
- questioning for feelings
- relating feelings to consequences or precedents

4. problem solving (cognitive/thinking)
- offering info or explanations
- generating alternatives
- decision making
- mobilizing resources


Prepare Thoroughly for the Counseling Interview

Select a Structure

- the affective or emotional phases, 1 and 3, involve the interviewee's feelings and trust in the counselor, feelings about self and feelings about the problem. a nondirective approach is usually the best for the affective phases (1 and 3) of the interview.
- the cognitive or thinking phases, 2 and 4, involve thinking about the problem and taking action. a directive or combination approach is usually best for the cognitive phases.
- the typical counseling interview begins with establishing rapport and a feeling of trust (phase 1 - establishment of helpful climate), proceeds into discovering the nature of the interviewee's problem (phase 2 - assessment of problem), probes more deeply into the interviewee's feelings (phase 3 - affect integration) and comes to a decision about a course of action (phase 4 - problem solving).
- don't expect to move through all four phases every counseling interview or to proceed uninterrupted or in numerical order. you may go back and forth between phases 2 and 3 or 3 and 4, as different aspects of the problem are revealed or disclosed, feelings increase or decrease in intensity and a variety of solutions are introduced and weighed.
- unless the interviewee wants specific info (where to get medical or housing assistance, how to drop or add a course, how to get an emergency loan) you may not get to phase 4 until a second, third or fourth interview.


Prepare Thoroughly for the Counseling Interview

Select a Setting

- consider carefully the climate and tone of the interview. each will affect the levels of communication that take place and the willingness to disclose feelings and attitudes.
- provide a climate conducive to good counseling - quiet, comfortable, private and free of interruptions
- an interviewee will not be open and honest if other ppl can overhear the convo
- select a neutral location such as a lounge, park, or org cafe where the interviewee might feel less threatened and more relaxed. some interviewees feel more comfortable or safe only on their own turf so consider meeting in the person's room, home, office or business
- when possible, arrange seating so that both parties are able to communicate freely. you may want to sit on the floor with a child, perhaps playing a game, drawing pics, or looking at a book. many students comment that an interviewer behind a desk makes them ill at ease, as though the "might one" is sitting in judgement.
- they prefer a chair at the end of the desk, at a right angle to the interview, or in chairs facing one another with no desk in between
- arrangements of furniture can contribute to or detract from the information, conversational atmosphere so important in counseling sessions
- counseling interviewers found that a round table, similar to a dining room or kitchen table is preferred by interviewees bc it includes no power or leader positions. interviewees like this arrangement bc they often family family matters around the dining or kitchen table.
- don't underestimate the importance of location or setting.
- a round table is a traditional arrangement for problem solving.


Conducting the Interview

- as you approach the interview, keep important principles in mind.
- realize that you are investing in people and that people can change, grow and improve.
- you must be able to accept the person as the person is, so don't approach the interview as an opportunity to remodel and individual to your liking. the interview is a learning process for both parties and is unlikely to be a one-shot effort.


Conducting the Interview

The Opening

- the first mins of a counseling session set the verbal and psychological tone for the remainder.
- great the interviewee by name in a warm friendly manner being natural and sincere.
- show you want to be involved and to help. don't be condescending or patronizing. you might want to say it's about time you showed up, or what you you done this time, stifle your frustration or irritation
- accept the interviewee as he or she is and try to understand the client's world from inside the clients frame of reference.


Conducting the Interview

The Opening: Initial Comments and Reactions

- do not try to second guess the interviewee's reasons for making an appointment or dropping by. it is tempting to make statements such as:

- are you still fighting with your roommate
- I assume you want to be excused from class again
- I suppose this is about money
- I know why you're here

- a person may not have initiated this interview for any of these reasons but may feel threatened or angry by your comments and attitude. your interruption and comment may ruin an opening the interviewee has prepared that would have revealed why the interviewee has turned to you for help.
- avoid tactless and leading reactions all too common in interactions with family members, children, friends and associates like - why did you pierce your tongue, you look awful, you have been turning in work on time right, looks like you have put on a few pounds, when did you get red hair, etc
- such comments and questions can destroy the climate and tone necessary for successful counseling interview and destroy the interviewee's self confidence and self esteem


Conducting the Interview

The Opening: Rapport and Orrientation

- the counseling interview may consume considerable time getting acquainted and establishing a working relationship, even when your relationship with the interviewee has a long history
- the relational history may be positive or negative bc both parties monitor previous interactions and enter a new exchange with high or low expectations
- the counseling interview if often more threatening than other interactions
- an interviewee my begin by talking about the building, books on shelves, pics on the walls, view out the windows, or weather. be patient
- he interviewee is sizing up you, the situation, setting and may be building up the nerve to introduce an issue.
- the rapport stage is your chance to show attention, interest fairness willingness to listen, and ability to maintain confidences. in other words, it is the critical stage in establishing trust with the interviewee.
- you can discover their expectations, and apprehensions about the interview and attitudes toward you, your position, your org and counseling sessions.
- when rapport and orientation are completed, let the interviewee begin with what seems to be of most interest or concern to them. it is the first step toward revealing the precise nature of the problem the interviewee has been unable to face or solve. do not rush this process. observe the NV cues that may reveal inner feelings and their intensity
- remember to accept seemingly irrelevant opening comments.


Conducting the Interview

Encourage Self-Disclosure

- disclosures of beliefs, attitudes, concerns, and feelings determines the success of the CI (counseling interview) and is a major factor in the interviewee's decision to seek or not seek help
- studies reveal that self disclosing is a very complex process that involves intricate decision making
- the climate conducive for disclosures begins during the opening minutes of the interaction. research suggests that the situations is the most important variable in determining level of self disclosure. if positive, it creates a trusting relationship and engenders feelings of safety, pride and authenticity. the interviewee may come to see that keeping secrets inhibits the helping process where as disclosing produces a sense of relief from physical and emotional tension.
- during this stage, focus attention on strengths and achievements rather than weaknesses and failures and what is most in need of attention. this approach builds confidence and a feeling that it is safe to disclose beliefs, attitudes and feelings
- encourage interviewee disclosure by disclosing your feelings, attitudes and ensuring confidentiality and using appropriate humor.
- although full self disclosure is a desirable goal, an interviewee may be less tense and more willing to talk to you by hiding some undesirable facets of themselves.
- if you initiate the counseling session, state clearly and honestly what you want to discuss. if there is a specific amount of time allotted for the interview make this known so you can work within it.
- the interviewee will be more at ease knowing how much time is available. quality is more important than the length of time spend with an interviewee. attire an role behavior significantly affects the interviewee's perceptions of attractiveness and level of expertise and determine how closely the person will be drawn to you and the level of self-disclosure


Conducting the Interview

Encourage Self-Disclosure

- enhance SD through appropriate reactions and responses. prepare carefully to reduce surprises and don't be shocked by what you see and hear. release tensions with tasteful humor but don't appear to minimize the interviewee's problem
- speak as little as possible and don't interrupt the interviewee. listen empathetically. be sure your voice, facial expressions, eye contact and gestures communicate confident, warm and caring image. avoid highly directive responses until you have established a close, working relationship based on tactfulness and honesty.
- culture is a major determinant of the extent of SD in counseling interviews. research has showed how different cultures see the authority of counselors. some eastern cultures ppl see counselors as authority figures and may find a nondirective appraoch unsettling bc the authority has turned the interview over to them for control. they feel much more comfortable when counselors use a directive, interviewer-centered approach.
- african americans engaged in an ongoing assessing process. they assessed client therapist match (white or black) which was influence by salience of black identity, court involvement and ideology similarity between client and therapist. they then assessed their safety. used this info to monitor and manger their degree of SD along a continuum.
- study showed importance of counselor SD along cross cultural counseling - particularly their reactions to and experiences of racism or oppression
- gender may also play a role in determining SD. females tend to disclose more about themselves and their problems than do males, especially on intimate topics such as sex and a persons SD history often affects disclosure in other interviews.
- males often has psychological defense to protect themselves from feelings of weakness and to restrict emotional reactions.


Conducting the Interview:


- most important skill to master. listen for empathy so you can reassure comfort express warmth and try to place yourself in the interviewee's position and world.
- listen for comprehension so you can be patients, receive, understand, and recall interactions accurately and completely.
- avoid listening for evaluation that judges and may openly criticize.
- directly or indirectly moralizing, blaming questioning and disagreeing are major roadblocks to effective counseling.
- to get to the heart of the problem, give undivided attention to the interviewee's words and their implications and to what is unintentionally or intentionally left unmentioned.
- don't interrupt or take over the convo. beware of interjecting personal opinions, experiences or problems. too often, a person may want to talk about a serious illness of a father or mom but the counselor takes over with a story about his or her own family illness.
- if the person pauses or stops talking for a few mins, use silence to encourage the interviewee to continue talking. several NV behaviors communicate a willingness to listen: leaning forward and facing the other person squarely, maintaining good eye contact, and reflecting attention through facial expressions. interviewee's interpret smiles, attentive body postures and gestures as evidence of warmth and enthusiasm


Conducting the Interview:


- observe how the interviewee sits, gestures, fidgets, and maintains eye contact. pay attention to the voice for loudness, timidity, evidence of tension, and changes
- these observations provide clues about the seriousness of the problem and the interviewee's state of mind.
- deceptive answers may be lengthier, more hesitant and with long pauses. ppl also maintain eye contact longer when they lie.
- if you are going to take notes or record the interview, explain why and stop if you detect that either activity is affecting the interview adversely. ppl may be hesitant to leave a recording that other might hear. they are willing to confide in you, not others.
- look for NV signals but interpret them cautiously.


Conducting the Interview:


- qs play important roles in CI, but asking too many is a common mistake. questions may interrupt the interviewee, change topics prematurely, and break the flow of SD's
- numerous qs reduce the interviewee to a mere respondent and may stifle the interviewee's own questions
- open ended qs encourage interviewees to talk and express emotions. both are important for encouraging, reflecting and questioning about feelings and restating and probing for information.
- ask one q at a time bc double-barreled qs result in ambiguous answers with neither portion answered clearly and thoroughly.
- use encouragement probes such as: And? Uhuh? I see. Go on. then what happened? And then?
- use informational probes for clarification, explanation, and in-depth info such as: why do you think that happened? how did she react? what do you mean he "overreacted"? tell me more about your confrontation with this person.
- use clearinghouse probes which can ensure that you have obtained all necessary info about an incident or problem. ex: what happened after that? are these all of the important details? anything else you would like to talk about? have I answered all of your questions?
- some questions can help interviewees make meanings of situations such as: what worries you the most right now, what do you think you can learn from this, what scares you the most now, etc.
- they also provide you with examples of what they call getting through questions that help interviewees manage their emotions: how did you get through that? how are you finding it possible to get through this family crisis, what did you do to feel better about this, etc

- avoid curious probes into feelings and embarrassing incidents specifically if the person seems hesitant to elaborate.
- beware of qs that communicate disapproval displeasure or mistrust that make the person less open and trusting..
- avoid leading questions except for unusual circumstances. counselors working with children may to through intensive training in programs such as "finding words" that stress the use of non-leading questions
- avoid why questions that appear to demand explanations and justifications and put the interviewee on the defensive. imagine how they would react to qs like why weren't you on time, why did you do that, why confront this person, why do you think that. etc.

- keep qs open ended and don't ask too many. phrase them all with care.


Conducting the Interview:


- selecting appropriate responses to questions and info requests can be hard. the emphasis in this chapter is on the client-centered approach to the CI in which the focus is on what the interviewee is saying verbally and nonverbally and what the interviewee is feeling.
- this approach suggests appropriate responses to elicit and identify feelings about self, feelings about the problem, and feelings of trust in the interviewer.
- interviewers may respond to interviewee information, questions, comments and feelings in a variety of ways.
- these responses are on a continuum from highly
nondirective to nondirective/directive and highly directive.
- a client centered approach focuses the interview on the interviewee. center the interview on this interviewee, no one else.


Conducting the Interview:

Respond: Highly Nondirective Reactions and Responses

- highly nondirective reactions and responses encourage interviewees to continue commenting, analyze ideas and solutions, and be self-reliant. the interviewer offers no information, assistance, or evaluation of the interviewee, the interviewee's ideas, or possible courses of action.
- remain silent to encourage the interviewees to continue or to answer their own questions

IE: I'm thinking of quitting the team
I: (silence)
I: I am not getting much play time and the long practices make it hard for me to study at night.

- encourage interviewees to keep speaking by employing semi-verbal phrases.

IE: nothing I do seems to make my supervisor happy.
I: Um-hmm
IE: she's always on my case when when I'm on time and don't visit with my friends much.

- when reacting and responding in a highly nondirective manner, be aware of your NV behaviors. face, tone of voice, speaking rate, and gestures must express sincere interest and reveal empathy. interviewees look for subtle signs of approval or disapproval, interest or disinterest.
- five kinds of smile, each of which may send a message you do not intend to send: I know something you don't know; poor, poor you; don't tell me; I'm smarter than you; I don't like you either
- holding one's hand or a simple touch may reassure a person and show caring and understanding.


Conducting the Interview:

Respond: Highly Nondirective Reactions and Responses

- simple NV reactions such as rolling your eyes, raising an eyebrow, crossing arms and sitting forward on your chair may adversely affect an interview. don't prolong silences until it becomes awkward. if an interviewee seems unable to continue or to go it along, switch to a different response.
- a variety of question techniques serve as highly nondirective responses, including silent, nudging and clearinghouse probes. restate or repeat an interviewee's question or statement instead of providing answers or volunteering info, ideas or evaluations or solutions. urge the person to elaborate or come up with ideas.
- you may return a question rather than answer it to encourage the person to analyze problems and select from among possible solutions. a return question ex.:
- IE: Should I file a formal grade appeal for my D in French?
- I: How do you feel about that?

- don't continue to push a decision back if you detect that the person has insufficient info or is confused, misinformed, genuinely undecided, or unable to make a choice. invite the interviewee to discuss a problem or idea.
- IE: I'm beginning to doubt that I can handle this.
- I: Do you want to talk about it?
- the invitational question asks if the person is willing or interested in discussing, explaining or revealing. don't intrude with more demanding questions such as "tell me about it" or "such as?" avoid a WHY question that may communicate criticism or impatience.

- reflective and mirror questions make sure you understand what the interviewee has just said or agreed to. they are designed to clarify and verify questions and statements, not to lead a person toward a preferred point of view.
IE: I can't seem to get motivated this semester
I: are you saying that your classes are not as challenging as last semester?
- reflective qs often begin with phrases such as Is it accurate to say...I feel you are saying...If I understand what you're saying, you're....Let me see if I understand what you're saying
- they require careful listening and a concerted verbal and nonverbal effort not to lead the interviewee


Conducting the Interview:

Nondirective Reactions and Responses

- nondirective reactions and responses inform and encourages with no imposition of either intended.
- IE: what are my options?
- I: the university offers you two options at this point of the semester. you may take my course pass/fail so you so you need to earn only a C grade or you can withdraw from the course by mid-semester with a passing grade.
- be an informer rather than a persuader
- be specific in answers. if you do not have the info, say so and promise to get it or refer the interviewee to a better qualified source. encourage and reassure the interviewee by noting that certain feelings, reactions and symptoms are normal and to be accepted.
- IE: I have been back from Afghanistan for six months and I still duck or drop to the ground when I hear a loud noise. My family gets embarrassed, particularly when it happens in public.
- I: this happened to me when I returned from two years in Iraq. It will take time, but you will gradually adjust and recognize these for what they are.
- there are quick ways to lose the trust and respect of an interviewee facing a difficult situation. you may give unrealistic advice or assurance such as "there's nothing to worry about" "I'm sure everything will be fine" "everything works out for the best"
- you can preach to the person with "in the old days" comments such as you think you have it tough, when I was your age... or when I was first married, we faced
- avoid cliches like the plague
- a thoughtless comment or two can damage a relationship
- be careful of falling into the we trap. think of when you experienced common we situations from counselors, teachers, health care providers, etc
- how are we doing this afternoon, we can handle it, let's take it one day at a time, are we ready for the exam, etc. you may have felt like shouting what do you mean by we. I'm the one taking the test, etc.


Conducting the Interview:

Directive Reactions and Responses

- go beyond encouragement and information to mild advice and evaluations or judgements.
- in the following interchange, the interviewer supports the interviewees ideas and urges action:
- IE: I'm horrible at math and I don't think I can handle the require course in quantitative research methods.
- I: I understand your concern, but why don't you try the 200 level course first and see how it goes?
- a directive response may mildly question the interviewee's comments or ideas. be tactful and cautious
- IE: my supervisor it talking about scheduling me to work on weekends, and that would keep me from visiting my grandmother who raised me.
- I: Why don't you talk to her about it?
- the interviewer may provide info and personal preference when asked
- IE: If you were in my shoes, what would you do?
- I: I would complete my high school education and then take some courses at the local community college

- mild directive reactions and responses may challenge an interviewee's actions, ideas, or judgments or urge the person to pursue a specific course or to accept info or ideas. employ directive responses only if nondirective responses don't work.
- directive responses advise and evaluate but do not dictate.


Conducting the Interview:

Highly Directive Reactions and Responses

- reserve highly directive reactions and responses for special circumstances. suggestions and mild advice are replaced with ultimatums and strong advice. the following illustrate highly directive responses and reactions
- IE: I don't think I can stop drinking; maybe cut back a bit but not cold turkey
- I: Then how do you expect to get your children back?
- IE: I can be a good mother and drink a bit less
- I: You've proven several times that you cannot do both. our only option is to join an AA group and stop. otherwise you will never get your children back.
- highly directive responses are most appropriate for simple behavioral problems and least appropriate for complex ones based on long-time habits for firmly held beliefs and attitudes. be a helper, not a dictator. the change or solution must come from the interviewee.
- interviewees who receive positive feedback comply more with the interviewer's requests and recommendations, return more often for counseling and arrive earlier. the findings led researchers to conclude that how interviewers respond seems to make a crucial difference. interviewees are more likely to implement interviewer recommendations when there is a good match between the recommendation ad the problem, the recommendation is not too difficult to implement, and the recommendation is build on the interviewee's strengths.
- exhaust all less directive means first


The Closing:

- if interviewees feel they have imposed on you or been pushed out the door as though on an assembly line, progress made during the interview may be erased, including the relationship fostered
- the verbal and nonverbal leave taking actions in ch 4 discuss how interviewers are close both consciously and unconsciously. decide which means or combinations of means best suits you and the other party
- the interviewee should be able to tell when the closing is commencing. don't begin new topics or raise new qs. don't expect to meet all expectations or finish with a neat solutions. be context that you have stirred thought and enabled the interviewee to discuss issues and express feelings. leave the door open for further interaction
- make interviewee active participant in closing


Evaluate the Interview:

- think carefully and critically about each counseling interview in which you take part. perceptive analysis will improve your helping interactions with others. be realistic
- they are interactions between complex human beings, at least one of whom has problem and may not know it, want to admit it or desire to do what it takes to resolve the problem.
- as you review the CI ask yourself if you reviewed the problem adequately, if the person self disclosed, if the climate was open and beyond level 1 interactions, if your questions were of quality and quantity, etc.
- review all you did and did not accomplish
- how prepared were you for this interaction? your perceptions of how the interview went and how the interviewee reacted may be exaggerated or incorrect. you will be greatly surprised by your successes and failures in attempting to help others. some of each are short lived.


The Telephone Interview

- many CI interviews take place over the phone, perhaps a cell phone while one or both parties are walking to class, driving to work, having dinner, working in the office, etc.
- TI's are common bc they are inexpensive, convenient, allow for anonymity, can give on a sense of control, and can take place over long distances and at any time of the day or night.
- unfortunately, TI's may come at a very inconvenient time when a counselor is too busy to talk, in a dif time zone, or in counseling another person. this often happens during office hours. the telephone invites multitasking bc a party can do other things while listening to you
- respondents found TI helpful for both global and specific improvement and that they were satisfied with the counseling they received. they rate the counseling relationship and level of interpersonal influence similar to f2f counseling. noted that the absence of visual contact and recommended training for counselors to use their voices and substitutes for place, clothes, nonverbal cues such as eye contact and gestures and physical appearance.



- you take part in a counseling interview whenever you try to help a person gain insight into a physical, career, emotional or social problem and discover ways to cope. they counseling interview is a highly sensitive interview bc it usually does not occur until a person feels incapable of handling a problem or a counselor decides that a helping session is needed.
- preparation helps to determine how to listen, question, inform, explain, response and relate to each interviewee. no two interviews are identical bc no two interviewees are situations are identical.
- thus, there are many suggestions but few rules for selecting interview approaches, responses, questions and structures.