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Flashcards in Ch. 10 Mission of Attack Deck (64):
1

Mission of attack is to _______________ in the area assigned.

Coordinate suppression efforts

2

The incident commander's task is to focus. The officer assigned to attack has ________.

Focus also.

3

______ focuses on the incident.
______ tunnel in (focus) on the task assigned.
______ do the work.

Command.
Division or group LEADERS.
Crews

4

You can put a lot of fire out with 500 gallons of water if you use a little discipline: (4)

Don't throw water at smoke.
For most interior attacks, INDIRECT is the BEST.
Quickly pull ceilings to check for vertical extension.
Use positive pressure ventilation after you have identified/darkened down fire

5

For most interior attacks at single-family homes, _______ attack is the best because it provides BEST use of water and LEAST disruption of thermal balance.

Indirect attack (straight stream bounced off the ceiling)

6

Once command has been established, ________ can be established and _________ put in place.

Water supplies.
Back up lines.

7

The officer assigned to attack has three responsibilities:

Safety of attack crew.
Putting out all the fire in the area assigned.
Keeping command informed.

8

Any group or division leader's first responsibility is:

Safety of the crew

9

If command send you into area where extent of fire is becoming untenable or affecting the structure to point where stability is jeopardized , the officer needs to: (2)

Protect the crew.
Take some form of evasive measures

10

__________ continually evaluating heat and smoke and stability of the floor.

Attack officer

11

Things in common for methods of fire attack

Differentiate between interior and exterior attack.
Differentiate between nozzle and stream types.
Differentiate between different types and stages of fire growth.

12

Two basic fire strategies are:

Offensive and defensive

13

Each form of fire attack is distinct and depends on: (5)

Extent of fire on arrival.
Savable victims.
Ability to operate inside.
Stability of structure.
Ratio of risk to gain.

14

Objective of any strategy (aka extinguishment process)

Confine fire (nozzle between fire/property).
Control fire (reduce heat).
Extinguish fire (overhaul).

CCE Vs HOT = LCE (locate/confine/extinguish)

15

Offensive strategy calls for an aggressive interior attack. The key to this strategy is __________________.

Confine fire to smallest area possible

16

In offensive strategy, command believes (3 things):

Quick interior attack can be successful.
Structure is worth saving.
RISKS associated with sending crews inside NOT GREATER than value of materials being saved

17

NFA water flow formula

L x W divided by 3 = flow or gpm to extinguish

18

Tactic using either smooth or solid streams applied directly to burning material. Intent is to cool the surface of the burning material.

Direct

19

3 tactics of offensive strategy

Direct (most common).
Fog.
Indirect (best).

20

Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Direct attack (6/3)

Adv.
-greater reach, not a lot of steam, won't drive out crews, penetration, knockdown power, doesn't push fire.
Disadvantage.
-more water needed, more water damage (less heat absorption), disturbs thermal balance

21

Tactic that should not be used or used sparingly in interior structural firefighting

Fog

22

Two instances in which fog is advocated

First is fire must be HELD to a specific area.
-can hold a lot of fire and only used in an emergency
Second is for quick VENTILATION purposes (20,000 cf air per minute).

23

Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Fog attack (2/3)

Adv.
- max heat absorption (water droplet=350 microns), stream can hold/change direction of fire (#1 reason advocating fog, other vent).
Disadv.
- max steam and body cannot tolerate, disrupt thermal balance (most), little reach/penetration

24

Tactic where straight or solid stream is aimed at ceiling, then deflected off the ceiling and allowed to rain down on the fire.

Indirect

25

__________ is an exterior attack on fire when no savable victims and amount of fire involvement or stability of the structure makes it imprudent to send firefighters inside.

Defensive strategy

26

Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Indirect attack (3/1) *Authors best method for interior attack-indirect*
-stream to ceiling, rains down. Side to side-better.

Adv.
-least amount of steam, reach of stream FFs able to stay back, BEST visibility, disrupts thermal LEAST.
Disadv.
-more material overhauled-less penetration.

26

Defensive attacks (Holding attacks) used for the following: (2)

Fire has reached flashover AND at least one floor totally involved.
Structure vacant AND well involved, heavy smoke or previous fires.

28

3 tactics of Defensive attack

Direct.
Indirect.
Combination

28

Three defensive modes used for:

Direct-flashover stage/free-burning, can't get close because of HEAT or structures STABILITY, safe distances and collapse zones.
Indirect-one application=backdraft. 60 degree FOG (indirect = wide fog).
Combination-flashover and APPROACHABLE. 30-60 degree fog

29

(Defensive) Direct attack when fire is in __________ or ___________ and firefighters can get closer because of ___________ or __________.

Flashover or free-burning stage (visible fire)

Structure's stability or radiant heat

30

Type of attack when people think about large fires

Direct (defensive)

31

Indirect (defensive) has only one application. Used when command believes:

There is a potential for backdraft

32

SSFO Conditions indicative of backdraft: (4)

Pushing/pulling of smoke.
Absence of visible flame.
Oily residue on Windows.
Doors hot to touch.
*Oxygen BELOW 16% while retaining heat/fuel load*

33

Normal plate glass fails at __________.

About 500F

34

If backdraft conditions exist, two things must be done:

First, vent hole at top of structure (safely remove products of combustion without allowing air to enter).
Second, after vent hole and air allowed flow up/out, inside cooled by injecting steam (or fog) into lower portion.

35

Steps for indirect fire attack (defensive)

Identify conditions/stop from entering.
Vent hole roof OR highest portion of structure.
Take a break.
Small hole in lower portion of door panel, 60 degree fog.
Wait.
After 10-15 minutes, return to roof to check heat.
Open front door and wait "a few minutes" before going inside (then open other doors) 3-4 individuals.
Command made aware of attack crew location.
Extensive overhaul

36

When creating vent hole in roof or at highest portion, typically this will be at the _________ or at highest portion of flat roof. Even ___________ have grade or slope for shedding of water. After hole is made, you will get _________________. This is a ____ thing and ______.

Ridge board.
Flat roofs.
Torch effect of heated gases.
Good, normal

37

Flame production ceases and human beings can't live in _____ O2 environment.

16% (attack).

(15% command)

38

This approach is used when an area of the structure has reached flashover stage and the structure is approachable.

Combination (defensive)

39

This method can be used on an occupied structure that is at flashover stage on the FIRST floor. It may provide a ___________________ prior to an _____________.

Combination attack (defensive)

Quick EXTERIOR knockdown
Offensive INTERIOR attack

40

With this attack, you approach in open window or door with the nozzle set ____________ degrees and move your hands back from the nozzle, rotate the nozzle in a ________ motion.

Combination (defensive)

Between 30-60 degrees
Clockwise

41

With combination (defensive) attack, the hose stream will put out all the fire it can reach in ____________. If fire not darkened down in ______________, get a larger or additional line.

30 seconds
*p. 106*

42

Never attempt defensive attack if: (2)

Conceivable victims may be inside
Crews are inside

43

The _______ and ______ system must be part of every fire departments standard operating procedures. Personal accountability reports (PARs) meet this criteria.

Head counts
Check-in system

44

Most fire are ______ fires. The ________ attack is rarely mounted initially.

Offensive
Defensive

*offensive, aggressive is 75% of the time*

45

It's up to attack officer to determine: (3)

How/where to get into building
Where the attack line will be taken
The method of attack to be used

46

If command orders specific exposure, indicates __________.

Direction fire is heading OR venting from.

47

If command orders vent in the roof, then he or she believes ________.

Fire has gotten into structure itself.

48

Command orders PPV, believes _______.

Fire is small and not entered hidden spaces

49

Command orders additional attack lines to assist you, ______________

More fire than originally thought

50

Command orders attack out, he or she ________________.

Knows something attack doesn't.

51

Attack is the "________________". He should get ____________.

Person in charge inside.
Best idea of what is going on inside and what else may be needed.

52

3 ways "If fire wants out, let it out"

Pushing fire back down vent holes
-let it go.
Hitting fire venting from eaves/soffit (spreading vertically and laterally)
-stream above window, cooling siding.
Fire venting from window or door (moth to flame)
-cool exposed surface with constant stream of water.

53

"Attack from uninvolved area toward area of involvement" helps in two ways:

Diminishes spread of fire
*this is "confine" in Confine Control Extinguish (CCE - SSFO) (LCE - HOT)

No pushing fire or heat toward victims

54

Generally a hose stream will put out all fire it can reach in ___________.

30-60 seconds.
-top of stairway and directing water into well-involved second floor and fire not out in 30-60 sec, go get MORE WATER!

55

Objective of every hose stream should be __________

To advance

56

3 reasons why hoseline can't advance:

No more line to advance.
Physically don't have resources to advance.
Can't advance to heat

57

One of cardinal rules of firefighting is to ______________.

Keep command informed

57

Multiple fires on same floor, _____________

Bigger is first

58

Fires on multiple floors, start at _________

Lowest level possible without being cut off from egress

60

Start on lowest level possible.
Don't take hoseline into basement unless ______

Backup line in stairway

61

If you encounter opposing lines, _______

Bigger is better

62

Big fire, big water

NFA flow equation
L x W / 3 = gpm

63

If you've tried something and no improvement, __________.

Try something else.