Flashcards in Ch. 10 Mission of Attack Deck (64):
Mission of attack is to _______________ in the area assigned.
Coordinate suppression efforts
The incident commander's task is to focus. The officer assigned to attack has ________.
______ focuses on the incident.
______ tunnel in (focus) on the task assigned.
______ do the work.
Division or group LEADERS.
You can put a lot of fire out with 500 gallons of water if you use a little discipline: (4)
Don't throw water at smoke.
For most interior attacks, INDIRECT is the BEST.
Quickly pull ceilings to check for vertical extension.
Use positive pressure ventilation after you have identified/darkened down fire
For most interior attacks at single-family homes, _______ attack is the best because it provides BEST use of water and LEAST disruption of thermal balance.
Indirect attack (straight stream bounced off the ceiling)
Once command has been established, ________ can be established and _________ put in place.
Back up lines.
The officer assigned to attack has three responsibilities:
Safety of attack crew.
Putting out all the fire in the area assigned.
Keeping command informed.
Any group or division leader's first responsibility is:
Safety of the crew
If command send you into area where extent of fire is becoming untenable or affecting the structure to point where stability is jeopardized , the officer needs to: (2)
Protect the crew.
Take some form of evasive measures
__________ continually evaluating heat and smoke and stability of the floor.
Things in common for methods of fire attack
Differentiate between interior and exterior attack.
Differentiate between nozzle and stream types.
Differentiate between different types and stages of fire growth.
Two basic fire strategies are:
Offensive and defensive
Each form of fire attack is distinct and depends on: (5)
Extent of fire on arrival.
Ability to operate inside.
Stability of structure.
Ratio of risk to gain.
Objective of any strategy (aka extinguishment process)
Confine fire (nozzle between fire/property).
Control fire (reduce heat).
Extinguish fire (overhaul).
CCE Vs HOT = LCE (locate/confine/extinguish)
Offensive strategy calls for an aggressive interior attack. The key to this strategy is __________________.
Confine fire to smallest area possible
In offensive strategy, command believes (3 things):
Quick interior attack can be successful.
Structure is worth saving.
RISKS associated with sending crews inside NOT GREATER than value of materials being saved
NFA water flow formula
L x W divided by 3 = flow or gpm to extinguish
Tactic using either smooth or solid streams applied directly to burning material. Intent is to cool the surface of the burning material.
3 tactics of offensive strategy
Direct (most common).
Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Direct attack (6/3)
-greater reach, not a lot of steam, won't drive out crews, penetration, knockdown power, doesn't push fire.
-more water needed, more water damage (less heat absorption), disturbs thermal balance
Tactic that should not be used or used sparingly in interior structural firefighting
Two instances in which fog is advocated
First is fire must be HELD to a specific area.
-can hold a lot of fire and only used in an emergency
Second is for quick VENTILATION purposes (20,000 cf air per minute).
Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Fog attack (2/3)
- max heat absorption (water droplet=350 microns), stream can hold/change direction of fire (#1 reason advocating fog, other vent).
- max steam and body cannot tolerate, disrupt thermal balance (most), little reach/penetration
Tactic where straight or solid stream is aimed at ceiling, then deflected off the ceiling and allowed to rain down on the fire.
__________ is an exterior attack on fire when no savable victims and amount of fire involvement or stability of the structure makes it imprudent to send firefighters inside.
Advantages and disadvantages of Interior Indirect attack (3/1) *Authors best method for interior attack-indirect*
-stream to ceiling, rains down. Side to side-better.
-least amount of steam, reach of stream FFs able to stay back, BEST visibility, disrupts thermal LEAST.
-more material overhauled-less penetration.
Defensive attacks (Holding attacks) used for the following: (2)
Fire has reached flashover AND at least one floor totally involved.
Structure vacant AND well involved, heavy smoke or previous fires.
3 tactics of Defensive attack
Three defensive modes used for:
Direct-flashover stage/free-burning, can't get close because of HEAT or structures STABILITY, safe distances and collapse zones.
Indirect-one application=backdraft. 60 degree FOG (indirect = wide fog).
Combination-flashover and APPROACHABLE. 30-60 degree fog
(Defensive) Direct attack when fire is in __________ or ___________ and firefighters can get closer because of ___________ or __________.
Flashover or free-burning stage (visible fire)
Structure's stability or radiant heat
Type of attack when people think about large fires
Indirect (defensive) has only one application. Used when command believes:
There is a potential for backdraft
SSFO Conditions indicative of backdraft: (4)
Pushing/pulling of smoke.
Absence of visible flame.
Oily residue on Windows.
Doors hot to touch.
*Oxygen BELOW 16% while retaining heat/fuel load*
Normal plate glass fails at __________.
If backdraft conditions exist, two things must be done:
First, vent hole at top of structure (safely remove products of combustion without allowing air to enter).
Second, after vent hole and air allowed flow up/out, inside cooled by injecting steam (or fog) into lower portion.
Steps for indirect fire attack (defensive)
Identify conditions/stop from entering.
Vent hole roof OR highest portion of structure.
Take a break.
Small hole in lower portion of door panel, 60 degree fog.
After 10-15 minutes, return to roof to check heat.
Open front door and wait "a few minutes" before going inside (then open other doors) 3-4 individuals.
Command made aware of attack crew location.
When creating vent hole in roof or at highest portion, typically this will be at the _________ or at highest portion of flat roof. Even ___________ have grade or slope for shedding of water. After hole is made, you will get _________________. This is a ____ thing and ______.
Torch effect of heated gases.
Flame production ceases and human beings can't live in _____ O2 environment.
This approach is used when an area of the structure has reached flashover stage and the structure is approachable.
This method can be used on an occupied structure that is at flashover stage on the FIRST floor. It may provide a ___________________ prior to an _____________.
Combination attack (defensive)
Quick EXTERIOR knockdown
Offensive INTERIOR attack
With this attack, you approach in open window or door with the nozzle set ____________ degrees and move your hands back from the nozzle, rotate the nozzle in a ________ motion.
Between 30-60 degrees
With combination (defensive) attack, the hose stream will put out all the fire it can reach in ____________. If fire not darkened down in ______________, get a larger or additional line.
Never attempt defensive attack if: (2)
Conceivable victims may be inside
Crews are inside
The _______ and ______ system must be part of every fire departments standard operating procedures. Personal accountability reports (PARs) meet this criteria.
Most fire are ______ fires. The ________ attack is rarely mounted initially.
*offensive, aggressive is 75% of the time*
It's up to attack officer to determine: (3)
How/where to get into building
Where the attack line will be taken
The method of attack to be used
If command orders specific exposure, indicates __________.
Direction fire is heading OR venting from.
If command orders vent in the roof, then he or she believes ________.
Fire has gotten into structure itself.
Command orders PPV, believes _______.
Fire is small and not entered hidden spaces
Command orders additional attack lines to assist you, ______________
More fire than originally thought
Command orders attack out, he or she ________________.
Knows something attack doesn't.
Attack is the "________________". He should get ____________.
Person in charge inside.
Best idea of what is going on inside and what else may be needed.
3 ways "If fire wants out, let it out"
Pushing fire back down vent holes
-let it go.
Hitting fire venting from eaves/soffit (spreading vertically and laterally)
-stream above window, cooling siding.
Fire venting from window or door (moth to flame)
-cool exposed surface with constant stream of water.
"Attack from uninvolved area toward area of involvement" helps in two ways:
Diminishes spread of fire
*this is "confine" in Confine Control Extinguish (CCE - SSFO) (LCE - HOT)
No pushing fire or heat toward victims
Generally a hose stream will put out all fire it can reach in ___________.
-top of stairway and directing water into well-involved second floor and fire not out in 30-60 sec, go get MORE WATER!
Objective of every hose stream should be __________
3 reasons why hoseline can't advance:
No more line to advance.
Physically don't have resources to advance.
Can't advance to heat
One of cardinal rules of firefighting is to ______________.
Keep command informed
Multiple fires on same floor, _____________
Bigger is first
Fires on multiple floors, start at _________
Lowest level possible without being cut off from egress
Start on lowest level possible.
Don't take hoseline into basement unless ______
Backup line in stairway
If you encounter opposing lines, _______
Bigger is better
Big fire, big water
NFA flow equation
L x W / 3 = gpm