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Flashcards in ch 12 Deck (30)
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1

what 2 things did durkheim believe to be necessary to cohesiveness of society?

forces of integration and forces of regulation

2

forces of integration

social bonds and collective beliefs that hold people together

3

forces of regulation

laws and social institutions that help ensure compliance with social norms/values/beliefs

4

what is durkheim best known for his work on?

anomie

5

anomie (4)

periods of lawlessness, normlessness, unrestrained choice, breakdown of social solidarity

6

what darwinian notions did members of the chicago school reject? (2)

most criminals were either psychopaths or feeble-minded

7

the idea that society is comparable to an organism and that society is based on consensus not conflict

functionalism

8

the theory that a breakdown of networks, norms, and trust can lead to greater crime and violence

social disorganization theory

9

5 main characteristics associated with socially disorganized areas

poverty, overcrowding, ethnic and cultural heterogeneity, residential instability, and broken homes

10

sampson and groves' 3 intervening variables

sparse local friendship networks, unsupervised teenage peer groups, and low organizational participation

11

2 features of social disorganization

breakdown of informal social controls and juvenile delinquency

12

sutherland's theory that criminal behaviour is learned through the process of social interaction

differential association theory

13

the notion that meaning and reality are socially constructed through gestures, symbols, or words which are themselves socially constructed

symbolic interactionism

14

which school is associated with "eugenics criminology"

positivist

15

the notion that criminals learn motivations and rationalizations to justify their criminal behaviour

neutralization

16

5 techniques of neutralization

denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemners, appeal to higher loyalties

17

which theory combines sutherland's theory with the principles of operant conditioning?

differential association-reinforcement theory

18

examines how certain groups or behaviours come to be known as deviant

sociology of deviance

19

the stigma affixed through the criminalization process may lead individuals to develop a deviant self-image and feel separate from the normal community, and thus continue with deviant behaviour

labelling theory

20

anomie-strain theory

the state of anomie caused by strain between cultural goals and the institutional means to achieve those goals

21

5 modes of adaptation for dealing with sense of anomie or strain

conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion

22

the notion that criminal subcultures develop their own values or norms

cultural transmission theory

23

explains delinquent acts by teens from affluent families

general strain theory

24

institutional imbalance is caused by the cultural goals of capitalist society and the failure of social institutions to properly integrate and regulate the pursuit of those goals

institutional-anomie theory

25

criminal behaviour depends on reward or punishment

social learning theory

26

social bonds and informal social controls act as restraints on teen delinquency

social control theory

27

4 elements of hirschi's social bond theory

attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief

28

both social bond theory and social learning theory are needed to explain criminal behaviour because the weakening of the social bond and the social learning of criminal values is reciprocal

interactional theory

29

individuals can be deflected off the trajectory of crime by turning points in life

life-course-developmental theory

30

durkheim believes in the ____ perspective whereas marx believes in the ____ perspective

consensus, conflict