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Flashcards in ch 13 Deck (23)
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1

violence that is most commonly inflicted by one individual against another or by a small group against another

interpersonal violence

2

the notion that an event occurs as a result of more than one factor

multi-causal

3

dark figure of crime

the variation between the number of crimes that occur and the number of crimes that are actually reported to the police

4

what are the GSS's 3 measures of violent victimization?

assault, sexual assault, and robbery

5

factors that are associated with crime

correlates

6

violent victimization that does not cause death

sub-lethal violent victimization

7

factors associated with an incident

situational characteristics

8

violent victimization that causes death

lethal violence

9

theories that state certain societal stressors increase the likelihood of crime

strain theories

10

low income or poverty in and of itself

absolute deprivation

11

the perception of unfair disparity between one's situation and that of others

relative deprivation

12

a culturally idealized form of masculinity

hegemonic masculinity

13

the unequal distribution of resources and services from one area to another

spatial inequality

14

larger numbers of poor people living in certain neighbourhoods means higher levels of violent crime

compositional effect

15

levels of violent crime stem from neighbourhood social context

contextual effect

16

a group's shared belief that it can come together to achieve desire goals

collective efficacy

17

a crime and violence prevention model that is designed to address social and spatial inequalities in urban neighbourhoods

safer cities initiatives

18

what does CPSD stand for

crime prevention through social development

19

the twin pillars of crime prevention

CPTED and CPSD

20

primary level of CPSD

universal, population-based programs for everyone such as education and healthcare

21

secondary level of CPSD

programs that target those at higher risk for criminal activity

22

tertiary level of CPSD

rehabilitative and supervision programs for offenders to reduce re-offending

23

4 CPTED design principles

natural access control, natural surveillance, territoriality, and maintenance