Ch. 12 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12 Vocab Deck (44):
1

an ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two

cell cycle

2

the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome

chromatin

3

the specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached

centromere

4

cellular structures carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins

chromosomes

5

the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II

cytokinesis

6

structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center

centrosome

7

the first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate

cleavage furrow

8

the process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; the succession of rapid cell divisions without significant growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote to a ball of cells

cleavage

9

a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell forms during cytokinesis

cell plate

10

a cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle

cell cycle control system

11

a control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle

checkpoint

12

a cellular protein that occurs in a cyclically fluctuating concentration and that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle

cyclin

13

a protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin

cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)

14

the fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell

anaphase

15

the requirement that a cell must be attached to a substratum in order to divide

anchorage dependence

16

a method of asexual reproduction by "division of half"

binary fission

17

a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of its origin

benign tumor

18

the phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another

density-dependent inhibition

19

a radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis

aster

20

the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its no coding nucleic acid sequences

genome

21

haploid reproductive cells, such as eggs or sperm

gametes

22

the first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins

G1 phase

23

the second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs

G2 phase

24

a no dividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle

G0 phase

25

a protein that must be present in the extra cellular environment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells; a local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation

growth factor

26

the period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing

interphase

27

a structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle

kinetochore

28

a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

mitosis

29

the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis

mitotic (M) phase

30

a modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication

meiosis

31

the third stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate

metaphase

32

an imaginary plane midway between the two poles of a cell in metaphase on which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located

metaphase plate

33

an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis

mitotic spindle

34

a cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs

malignant tumor

35

the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site

metastasis

36

the second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes

prometaphase

37

the first stage of mitosis, in which the chromatin condenses, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disappears, but the nucleus remains intact

prophase

38

any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg

somatic cells

39

either of two copies of duplicated chromosomes attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms

sister chromatids

40

the synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated

S phase

41

the fifth and final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun

telophase

42

the conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell; a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell

transformation

43

short stretches of DNA having a specific sequence of nucleotides

origin of replication

44

the reproduction of cells

cell division