Ch. 15 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 15 Vocab Deck (18):
1

A gene located on a sex chromosome, resulting in a distinctive pattern of inheritance

sex-linked genes

2

a human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

3

a human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele resulting in the absence of one or more blood-clotting proteins; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury

Hemophilia

4

a dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals, representing a highly condensed, inactivated X chromosome

Barr body

5

genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together

linked genes

6

an offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents; also refers to the phenotype itself

Recombinant

7

The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis

crossing over

8

an ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome

Genetic map

9

a genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes

linkage map

10

a unit of measurement of the distance between genes

map units

11

an error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other

nondisjunction

12

a chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number

aneuploidy

13

referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two

monosomic

14

referring to a diploid cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two

trisomic

15

a chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets; the result of an accident of cell division

polyploidy

16

a human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects

Down syndrome

17

a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent

genomic imprinting

18

a basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns

chromosome theory of inheritance