Ecology Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (59):
1

how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment

organismal ecology

2

analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time

population ecology

3

examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization

community ecology

4

emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment

ecosystem ecology

5

focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems

landscape ecology

6

examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere

global ecology

7

advocates the protection of nature

environmentalism

8

is not an advocate, just a study of the environment

ecology

9

nonliving factors such as chemical and physical factors

abiotic factors

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living factors, such as all the organisms that are part of the individual's environment

biotic factors

11

the movement of individuals away from their area of origin of from centers of high population density

dispersal

12

a narrow layer of abrupt temperature change that separates the more uniformly warm upper layer from more uniformly cold deeper waters

thermocline

13

where the oxygenated water from a lake's surface goes to the bottom and the nutrient rich water from the bottom to the surface

turnover

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lakes that are nutrient-poor and generally oxygen rich

oligotrophic lake

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a lake that's nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen

eutrophic lake

16

inundated by water at least some of the time

wetlands

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most prominent physical characteristic is their current

streams and rivers

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transition area b/t river and sea

estuary

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periodically submerged and exposed by the tides, twice daily on most marine shores

intertidal zones

20

vast realm of open blue water, constantly mixed by wind-driven oceanic currents

ocean pelagic zone

21

formed largely from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals

coral reef

22

consists of the seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal, or neritic, zone, and the offshore, pelagic zone

marine benthic zone

23

number of individuals per unit area of volume

density

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the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population

dispersion

25

used to estimate the size of wildlife populations

Mark-recapture method

26

grouped together where food is abundant

clumped

27

maintained by aggressive interactions between neighbors

uniform

28

most plants use this pattern of dispersion

random

29

study of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time

demography

30

age specific summaries of the survival pattern of a population

life tables

31

used to represent the data in a life table

survivorship curve

32

occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal

zero population growth

33

aka geometric population growth, all of the population has access to abundant food and is free to reproduce at its physiological capacity, J-shaped curve

exponential population growth

34

the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain

carrying capacity

35

the per capita rate of increase, approaches zero as the carrying capacity is reached

logistic population growth

36

study that focuses on the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the size of populations

population dynamics

37

formed when a number of local populations are linked and are influenced by immigration and emigration

metapopulation

38

concept that summarizes the aggregate land and water area required by each person, city, or nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates; how humans affect the world biologically

ecological footprint

39

camouflage, makes prey hard to see

cryptic coloration

40

warning coloration

aposematic coloration

41

harmless species mimic an unpalatable or harmful model

Batesian mimicry

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two or more unpalatable species resemble each other

mullerian mimicry

43

where an organism eats a plant or alga, +/-

herbivory

44

when two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another

symbiosis

45

scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment

ecology

46

a parasite obtains nourishment from its host, +/-

parasitism

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interactions between species benefit both participants, +/+

mutualism

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only one member appears to benefit from the interaction, +/0

commensalism

49

competition

-/-

50

species in a community that are the most abundant or have the highest biomass

dominant species

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organisms (typically introduced by humans) that take hold outside their native range

invasive species

52

exert strong control on community structure because of their pivotal ecological roles

keystone species

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when an area that is disturbed and colonized by a variety of species is replaced by another species in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet formed (volcanic island)

primary succession

54

occurs when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact (fire)

secondary succession

55

disease causing microorganisms that are transferred from other animals to humans either by direct contact or by means of an intermediate species

zoonotic pathogens

56

efforts to conserve biological diversity at all levels

conservation biology

57

applies ecological principles to return ecosystems that have been disturbed by human activity to a condition as similar as possible to their natural state

restoration ecology

58

one that is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range"

endangered species

59

those that are considered likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future

threatened species