Ch. 24 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 24 Vocab Deck (19):
1

evolutionary change below the species level

microevolution

2

evolutionary change above the species level, including the origin of a new group of organisms or a shift in the broad pattern of evolutionary change over a long period of time

macroevolution

3

definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups

biological species concept

4

a population or groups of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups

species

5

the existence of biological factors that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile offspring

reproductive isolation

6

offspring that results from the mating of individuals from two different species or two true-breeding varieties of the same species

hybrids

7

a reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific mating is attempted

prezygotic barriers

8

a reproductive barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults

postzygotic barriers

9

a definition of species in terms of measurable anatomical criteria

morphological species concept

10

a definition of species in terms of ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of the environment

ecological species concept

11

a definition of species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life

phylogenetic species concept

12

the formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another

allopatric speciation

13

a chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets

polyploidy

14

an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species

autopolyploidy

15

a fertile individual that has more than two chromosome sets as a result of two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes

allopolyploidy

16

a geographic region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry

hybrid zone

17

a process in which natural selection strengthens prezygotic barriers to reproduction, thus reducing the chances of hybrid formation

reinforcement

18

in the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis, in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change

punctuated equilibria

19

an evolutionary process in which one species splits into two or more species

speciation