Ch. 6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Vocab Deck (27):
1

A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

Eukaryotic cell

2

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

Prokaryotic cell

3

The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centrifugation

Cell fractionation

4

(1) an atoms central core, containing protons and neutrons
(2) the chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell
(3) a cluster of neutrons

Nucleus

5

A specialized structure in the nucleus, consisting of chromatin regions containing ribosomal RNA genes along with ribosomal proteins imported from the cytoplasmic site of RNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly

Nucleolus

6

A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

Chromosomes

7

An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

8

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the ER and synthesize some products, notably noncellulose carbohydrates

Golgi apparatus

9

A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell.

Phagocytosis

10

A membranouse sac that helps move excess water out of certain freshwater protists

Contractile vacuole

11

A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development

Central vacuole

12

An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration

Mitochondria

13

An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it drive the synthesis of organic compunds from carbon dioxide and water

Chloroplasts

14

An unfolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses electron transport chains and molecules of the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP

Cristae

15

The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle

Mitochondrial matrix

16

A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast

Thylakoids

17

A stack of membrane bounded thylakoids in the chloroplast

Granum

18

Within the chloroplast, the dense fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water

Stroma

19

A network of microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical, transport, and signaling functions

Cytoskeleton

20

A hollow rod composed of tubulin proteins that make up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells and is found in cilia and flagella

Microtubule

21

A structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a cylinder of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern

Centrioles

22

A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion

Flagella

23

A short cellular appendage containing microtubules

Cilia

24

A cable composed of actin proteins in the cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell, making a part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction; also known as an actin filament

Microfilament

25

A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding

Psuedopodia

26

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cells of plants, prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists.

Cell wall

27

The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm

Cytosol