Ch. 26 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 26 Vocab Deck (28):
1

a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships

systematics

2

a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life

taxonomy

3

the two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of the genus and specific epithet

binomial

4

a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

phylogenetic tree

5

the representation on a phylogenetic tree of the divergence of two or more taxa from a common ancestor

branch points

6

system of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships; only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendants are named

PhyloCode

7

groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and hence are each other's closest relatives

sister taxa

8

in a phylogenetic tree, a branch point from which more than two descendant taxa emerge; indicates that the evolutionary relationships among the descendant taxa are not yet clear

polytomy

9

the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

phylogeny

10

similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait

analogy

11

similar structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species

homoplasies

12

a scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules in different species to infer evolutionary relationships

molecular systematics

13

an approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent

cladistics

14

a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants

clades

15

pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants

monophyletic

16

pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants

paraphyletic

17

a character, shared by members of a particular clade, that originated in an ancestor that is not a member of that clade

shared ancestral character

18

an evolutionary novelty that is unique to a particular clade

shared derived character

19

a species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that contains the group of species being studied

outgroup

20

a species or group of species whose evolutionary relationships we seek to determine

ingroup

21

a principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts

maximum parsony

22

as applied to systematics, a principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the hypothesis that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time

maximum likelihood

23

an approach in which features shared by two groups of organisms are predicted to be present in their common ancestor and all of its descendants

phylogenetic bracketing

24

homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation

orthologous genes

25

homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication

paralogous genes

26

a method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates

molecular clock

27

the hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian natural selection

neutral theory

28

the transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchanges viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organisms

horizontal gene transfer