Ch 13/14 Cardiovascular Physiology (Day 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 13/14 Cardiovascular Physiology (Day 2) Deck (32):

Anatomy of the Heart

-->see slide image


Atrioventricular Valves

Between atria and ventricles (ensures one-way blood flow)
-Tricuspid valve on the right side
-Bicuspid valve, or mitral valve, on the left side


Semilunar Valves

Between ventricles and arteries (ensures one-way blood flow)
-Pulmonary valve
-Aortic valve


Ventricular Contraction

AV valves (tricuspid, bicuspid/mitral) closed
Semilunar valves (pulmonary/aortic) open


Ventricular Relaxation

AV (tricuspid, bicuspid/mitral) valves open
Semilunar valves (pulmonary, aortic) closed



pump generating driving pressure for blood flow through the circulation

-Heart generates pressure when it contracts (systole) --> pumping blood into arteries
-Arteries maintain pressure by acting as an elastic pressure reservoir between cardiac contractions (i.e. during diastole)


Cardiac Cycle

Pumping is periodic, i.e. cardiac activity characterized by cycles of active pumping (systole) followed by resting (diastole).



contraction/pumping out





Pressure changes during cardiac cycle

1) Ventricles begin contraction, pressure rises, and AV valves close (lub); isovolumetric CONTRACTION

2) Pressure builds, semilunar valves open, and blood is ejected into arteries. (pressure of ventricles is much higher)

3) Pressure in ventricles falls; semilunar valves close (dub); isovolumetric relaxation.
--> Dicrotic notch – slight inflection in aortic pressure during isovolumetric RELAXATION

4) Pressure in ventricles falls below that of atria, and AV valve opens. Ventricles fill (passive).

5) Atria contract, sending last of blood to ventricles (active)


What are the pressure differences between L and R side of heart?

left side is 5-6x higher



volume is NOT changing


heart sounds

lub: closing of AV valves at start of isovolumetric contraction

dub: closing of semilunar valves during isovolumetric relaxation



1) EDV (end diastolic volume) - ESV (end systolic volume) = SV (stroke volume)
2) Ventricle does not eject all its volume—can be altered



pressure has reached a point where the mitral valve closes



pressure the heart is working against


stroke volume

overall work that is being done by the heart
-increases as EDV and ESV get further apart


Cardiac Muscle: Contractile cells

Striated fibers organized into sarcomeres


Cardiac Muscle: Autorhythmic (pacemaker cells)

-Signal for contraction (generate electric signal)
-Smaller and fewer contractile fibers
-No organized sarcomeres


Cardiac Muscle

1. contractile cells
2. auto rhythmic (pacemaker) cells

Myocardial muscle cells are branched, have a single nucleus, and are attached to each other by specialized junctions known as intercalated disks (gap junctions).


Electrical conduction in myocardial cells

Auto rhythmic (pacemaker) cells spontaneously fire action potentials. Depolarizations of the autorhythmic cells spread rapidly to adjacent contractile cells through gap junctions.

-approx 70bpm
-difference in action potential patterns determine function


Electrical Activity of the Heart

1. Sinoatrial node (SA node) - “pacemaker”; located in right atrium
2. AV node & Purkinje fibers - secondary pacemakers; slower rate than the “sinus rhythm”


Conduction System of the Heart

1. Action potentials spread via intercalated discs.
2. SA node --> AV node (atrial contraction)
-->pause at AV node so that ventricles contract and THEN ventricles contract (so they don't happen at same time)
3. AV node (base of right atrium) and Bundle of His conduct stimulation to ventricles.
4. In interventricular septum, bundle of His --> right and left bundle branches.
5. Branch bundles --> Purkinje fibers --> ventricular contraction.


Sinoatrial (SA) Valve

-Sets the pace of the heartbeat at 70 bpm
-AV node (50 bpm) and Purkinje fibers (25–40 bpm) can act as pacemakers under some conditions


Atrioventricular (AV) Valve

-Routes the direction of electrical signals so heart contracts from apex to base (i.e. from bottom --> top)
-AV node delay due to slower conduction through nodal cells


Excitation-Contraction Coupling of the heart

1. action potential enters from adjacent cell
2. voltage-gated Ca channels open --> Ca enters cell
3. Ca induces Ca release through ryanodine receptor-channels
4. local release causes Ca spark
5. summed Ca sparks create a Ca signal
6. Ca ions bind to troponin to initiate contraction
-->muscle pre-stretch may help this binding
7. relaxation occurs when Ca unbinds from troponin
8. Ca is pumped back into SR for storage
9. Ca is exchanged w/Na by NCX anti porter
10. Na gradient is maintained by Na/K ATPase

-->diff from skeletal muscle: some Ca coming in from cytoplasmic space


Action Potential: Cardiac Contractile Cell

0. Na channels open
1. Na channels close
2. Ca channels open/fast K channels close
3. Ca channels close/slow K channels open
4. resting potential


Why does tetany NOT occur in cardiac muscle?

Skeletal muscle fiber: refractory period is SHORT compared with duration of contraction


Cardiac muscle fiber: refractory period lasts almost as LONG as the entire muscle twitch.


Action Potential: Pacemaker (Autorhythmic) Cells

-->generate their own action potentials (70 times/min = bpm)

-Slow, spontaneous depolarization; aka “diastolic depolarization” – between heartbeats, inward I(Na+) triggered by HYPERPOLARIZATION --> determines HR

-At −40mV, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open, triggering action potential and contraction.

-Repolarization occurs with the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels.


Electrocardiogram (ECG)

-->picks up movement of ions in body tissues in response to this activity.
-Does NOT record action potentials, but results from WAVES OF DEPOLARIZATION
-Does NOT record contraction or relaxation, but the ELECTRICAL EVENTS leading to contraction and relaxation


Waves of an ECG

P wave: atrial depolarization
-->P-Q interval: atrial systole

QRS wave: ventricular depolarization
-->S-T segment: plateau phase, ventricular systole

T wave: ventricular repolarization


ECG Waves and Heart Sounds

“Lub” occurs after the QRS wave as the AV valves close

“Dub” occurs at the beginning of the T wave as the SL valves close