Ch. 13 Warm-up and stretching Flashcards Preview

CSCS > Ch. 13 Warm-up and stretching > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 13 Warm-up and stretching Deck (26):
1

general warmup

aim to increase heart rate, blood flow, deep muscle temperature, respiration rate, and perspiration and to decrease viscosity of joint fluids

2

specific warm-up

movements similar to the movements of the sport, involves dynamic stretching

3

range of motion ROM

the degree of movement that occurs at a joint

4

flexibility

a measure of ROM and has static and dynamic componets

5

static flexibility

the range of possible movement about a joint

6

dynamic flexibility

refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions

7

ball-and-socket

move in all anatomical planes, have the greatest ROM

8

ellipsoidal joint

an oval shaped condyle that fits into an elliptical cavity, less ROM than shoulder or hip

9

hinge joint

the least ROM, the knee

10

fibrosis

where fibrous connective tissue replaces degenerating muscle fibers

11

elasticity

the ability to return to original resting length after a passive stretch

12

plasticity

the tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch

13

muscle spindles

run parallel to extrafusal muscle fibers, monitor changes in muscle length

14

Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)

a mechanoreceptor located near the musculotendinous junction, is sensitive to increases in muscular tension. when stimulated it causes a muscle to reflexively relax

15

autogenic inhibition

when relaxation occurs in the same muscle that is experiencing increased tension

16

reciprocal inhibition

relaxation that occurs in the muscle opposing the muscle experiencing the increased tension

17

active stretch

occurs when the person stretching supplies the force of the stretch

18

passive stretch

occurs when a partner or stretching machine provides external force to cause or enhance a stretch

19

static stretch

slow and constant, with the end position held for 30 seconds

20

ballistic stretch

typically involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing-type movement in which the end position is not held

21

dynamic stretch

type of functionally bsed stretching exercise that uses sport-specific movements to prepare the body for activity, also called mobility drills, places emphasis on movements of the sport

22

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

originally developed as part of a neuromuscular rehabilitation program designed to relax muscles with increased tone or activity

23

agonist contraction

a concentric muscle action of the agonist is used during a passive stretch of the antagonist to achieve reciprocal inhibition

24

hold-relax technique

begins with a passive pre stretch that is held at the point of mild discomfort for 10 seconds

25

contract-relax technique

begins with a passive prestrech of the hamstrings that is held at the point of mild discomfort for 10 seconds

26

hold-relax with agonist contraction

identical to hold-relax in the first two phases, during the third phase a concentric action of the agonist is used in addition to the passive stretch to add to the stretch force