CH 6.2: Information Processing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 6.2: Information Processing Deck (30)
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1
Q

what does the info processing theory compare human cognition to?

A

computer hardware and software

2
Q

3 components of mental hardware

A

sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory

3
Q

sensory memory

A

unanalyzed info only held for a few seconds

4
Q

working memory

A

active and cognitive manipulation of info

5
Q

long-term memory

A

permanent storage of info

6
Q

which memory is known to have some facts that are hard to access?

A

long-term

7
Q

procedural memory

A

remembering how to do things

8
Q

semantic memory

A

memory of facts

9
Q

episodic memory

A

memory for an individual’s unique events experienced

10
Q

some basic mental tasks that mental software refers to

A

reading, doing math, finding one’s way to school

11
Q

steps of mental software

A
  1. understand question
  2. search memory for list (of previously accomplished similar tasks)
  3. compare question with list
  4. respond
12
Q

neo-Piagetian approach

A

movement from one of Piaget’s stages to another was due to advancements in info processing skills

13
Q

habituation vs dishabituation

A

habituation: as the stimulus becomes more familiar to us, we respond to it less
dishabituation: becoming actively aware of the stimulus again

14
Q

orienting response

A

a physical reaction to a strong/unfamiliar stimulus

15
Q

how is orienting useful to infants?

A

it makes them aware of potentially dangerous events

16
Q

infants who are more efficient at processing information tend to have higher what throughout early childhood?

A

executive function

17
Q

classical conditioning

A

a previously neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally produced by an unconditioned reinforcer

18
Q

operant conditioning

A

how consequences affect whether or not the preceding behavior will continue to occur

19
Q

4 ways that children learn

A

habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, imitation

20
Q

3 important features of a 2-3mo old’s memory

A
  1. past event is remembered
  2. over time, event can no longer be recalled
  3. a cue can recall the supposed forgotten memory
21
Q

phenomenon of humans not remembering much from when they were under 3-4yrs old

A

infantile amnesia

22
Q

possible explanations of infantile amnesia

A

-we rely on language to represent our past
-a sense of self (achieved around 3yrs old) serves as the basis for organizing the events in our life

23
Q

what did babies do that signified they can distinguish between objects based on number?

A

after becoming habituated to pictures of 2 objects they stared longer at a new picture of 3 objects

24
Q

egocentric frame of reference (Piaget)

A

infants think of the position of objects exclusively in terms of its position relative to themselves (infant’s understanding early on of env. is limited)

25
Q

objective frame of reference (Piaget)

A

infants think of an object’s location relative to the position of other objects

26
Q

children shift from _____ to ______ frame of reference

A

egocentric to objective

27
Q

2 scales of the Bayley scales of infant development

A

mental and motor

28
Q

one challenge to the use of psyc. tests to measure differences in infants

A

often don’t validly assess people from all cultures, specifically Indigenous people

29
Q

are infant intelligence test scores generally related to intelligence scores in later childhood?

A

no

30
Q

what hormone has an impact on learning and memory in infants?

A

cortisol