CH 7.4: Temperament Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 7.4: Temperament Deck (18)
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1
Q

temperament

A

an infant’s mood and style

2
Q

define “slow to warm up” babies

A

babies who tend to be unhappy, don’t adjust well to newness, but are relatively inactive in their responses

3
Q

Thomas and Chess’s nine dimensions of temperament

A

activity level
rhythmicity
approach/withdrawal
distractibility
adaptability
reaction intensity
mood
threshold
attention span/persistence

4
Q

Buss and Plomin’s three temperamental dimensions (and definitions)

A

emotionality: strength of an infant’s response and its ease at being triggered/calmed
activity: tempo/vigour of movements
sociability: extent that a baby prefers to be with people

5
Q

what 2 main types of child temperament were observed in preschool children?

A

bold/exuberant and shy/socially withdrawn

6
Q

moth theorists agree that temperament reflects what? (2)

A

heredity and experience

7
Q

which type of twins are more alike in temperament?

A

identical > fraternal

8
Q

hypothesis derived from discovering that infants upset by novel stimulus have narrower faces

A

genes influence levels of hormones that affect facial growth AND temperament

9
Q

babies often develop negative temperaments and lack confidence when their mothers what?

A

are abrupt to them

10
Q

what is the general consensus about the stability of temperament during the infant and toddler years?

A

it’s somewhat stable

11
Q

what key thing can infant temperament shape/determine?

A

the experiences their parents provide

12
Q

difficult temperaments is found to be strongly positive correlated to ________ problems in early childhood

A

behavioral

13
Q

which types of children are more; less likely to succeed in school?

A

persistent; active/distractible

14
Q

what type of children are more likely to comply with their parents requests?

A

anxious/fearful

15
Q

how do inhibited (shy) children tend to react when they see someone is suffering?

A

they may express concern but their shyness makes them apprehensive and prevents them from taking action

16
Q

temperament is said to rarely act alone. what else does it act with?

A

environment

17
Q

what does a child’s temperament influence?

A

their behaviour towards other, development, and it can predict aspects of a child’s future (marriage, having kids, etc)

18
Q

what are the 3 most common types of babies from the New York Longitudinal Study?

A

difficult, easy and slow-to-warm-up