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Flashcards in CH1&2 Deck (69)
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1

mind

private inner experience of perception, thoughts, memories, feelings

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS

2

Dualism

Rene Descartes

mind and body separate
connected at the pineal gland

3

phrenology

Franz Joseph GALL

specific mental abilities & characteristics located in specific parts of the brain;

different things responsible for different parts

4

Helmholtz

measured speed of responses

proved that mental responses aren't instantaneous

5

William Wundt

first psychology lab

pioneered structuralism

6

Structuralism

analysis of the basic elements that constitute the brain

consciousness measured by introspection

7

Introspection

subjective observation of one's own experience

8

William James

pioneered functionalism

9

functionalism

study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling ppl to adapt to their environment

consciousness is important biological function, let's figure out what it does!

10

Sigmund Freud

Wallace's bae, came up with the psychoanalytical theory

11

Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers

pioneered humanistic psychology after WWII cause they liked the good vibes & Freud was too depressing

12

Humanistic psychology

people have their own free will, inherent need to develop and grow, attain full potential

13

John Watson

pioneered behaviourism

tortured a baby

14

behaviourism

study of observable behaviour (cause private experience too subjective), controlled by environment

studied animals' behaviour and adaptations

15

Ivan Pavlov

study with dogs; conditioned reflexes

associated the bell with the dog's PRIMAL INSTINCT of hunger

16

B.F Skinner

came up with the principle of reinforcement

operant reinforcement (rewards and punishment)

17

principle of reinforcement (operant reinforcement)

people respond to present and past patterns of reinforcement

choose to do things because we have been rewarded in the past for doing so

18

Max Wertheimer

illusion stuff; errors of perception and memory, or where subjective experience is different from reality

moving lights experiment; lights perceived as a whole; moving instead of flashing (Gestalt)

19

Gestalt psychology

approach; we perceive the whole rather than the sum

20

cognitive psychology

scientific study of mental processes

includes perception, memory, thought, reasoning

21

behaviour neuroscience

approach; links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system & other bodily processes

e.g observe animals' responses, see which parts light up in the brain

22

cognitive neuroscience

field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity

23

evolutionary psychology

explains mind & behaviour using the adaptive values retained thru natural selection

brain built to do some things well and others not at all

24

social psychology

study of causes and consequences of sociality

e.g. if everyone did something we're pressured to do it too, even if we don't think it's right

25

name two social psychologists

Lewin - behaviour is the cause of internal and external forces

Asch - ppl combine small bits of info about another person into a full impression of that person's personality

26

cultural psychology

studies how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of its members

27

Absolutism vs Relativism

cultural psychology theory

absolutism = culture makes no difference; honesty is honesty and depression is depression no matter where ur from

relativism = makes a difference; depression is different in Eastern and Western countries

28

empiricism

belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation

29

scientific method

procedure for finding the truth by using empirical evidence (observed evidence)

30

hypothesis

FALSIFIABLE prediction made by a theory; to be tested