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Flashcards in CH8 Deck (50)
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1

PAUL EKMAN's discrete emotion theory

universal, innate set of basic emotions

anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

2

dimensional models

two dimensions: valence and arousal

a common neurophysiological system is responsible for ALL emotions

3

definition of emotion from a dimensional view

positive/negative experience that is associated w/ a particular pattern of physiological activity

4

arousal

how physiological arousal gives rise to emotion

(neural level/nervous system)

5

valence

how positive or negative the event/experience is

the emotion that follows

6

how are emotions measured and categorized?

measured: MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING

categorized: FOUNDATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

7

James-Lange theory

stimulus triggers activity in ANS first

THEN produces emotional experience in brain

(CONSCIOUS AWARENESS of physiological responses to stimuli)

8

Cannon-Bard theory

stimulus SIMULTANEOUSLY triggers activity in ANS + emotional experience

(body responses run PARALLEL to cognitive responses; they do not cause emotions)

9

Schachter-Singer Two-Factor theory

body + cognitive label = emotion

you only feel after you label an experience w/ an emotion

10

Problems w/James-Lange theory

emotions are fast/body is slow

people cannot detect small physiological changes

unlikely for a unique body response to EVERY emotion

non-emotional stimuli can give the same response (eg sweating)

11

which emotions produce higher heart rates?

anger, fear, sadness

12

which emotion produces the largest increase in finger temperature?

anger

13

which parts of the brain play a role in emotion?

hypothalamus, amygdala (threat detector/emotion recognition), hippocampus (memory)

14

what type of process is linked to the cortex where language and complex thought reside?

cognitive appraisal process

15

how is the pre-frontal cortex involved with emotion?

regulation (planning, reasoning, control, impulsivity)

16

appraisal

evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus

17

ledoux

two pathways of fear to brain

1. FAST (thalamus -> amygdala)
2. SLOW (thalamus -> cortex -> amygdala)

18

how are emotions adaptive?

signal important events, direct attention to them

fight/flight

social communication (provides observable info about internal states/influences others' behaviour)

19

emotion regulation

using cognitive and behavioural strategies to influence emotional experience

20

cognition

evokes emotions (e.g thinking of emotional events evokes feelings)

influences expression and how we act

21

appraisal

cognitive-emotional process

choosing how to view situations (your POV)

22

reappraisal

changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus

eg bracelet sentimental. break up...ANGER

23

emotional expression

face has 46 UNIQUE ACTION UNITS

(observable sign of an emotional state)

24

Darwin's universality hypothesis

emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone; UNIVERSAL

people are generally good at judging/creating expressions (6 universal emotions)

25

facial feedback hypothesis

emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify

e.g. If I look angry, I can make myself feel angry.

26

mirror neurons role/effect

mimicking other people's facial expressions allow us to feel/identify their emotions

27

what happens if you have amydala damge?

hard to recognize emotion

impairment in experiencing/making their own facial expressions

28

what are the 4 display rules

norms for the control of emotional expression

(intensification, deintensification, masking, neutralizing), differs among cultures

29

4 features that distinguish/differentiate sincere and insincere expressions

1. morphology (reliable muscles)
2. symmetry
3. duration
4.temporal patterning

30

Capgras Syndrome

damage to connections between the temporal lobe and limbic system

(family members/friends = imposters)

31

Aristotle's Hedonic principle

notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain

32

instinct

fixed (rigid/predictable) pattern of behaviour, not acquired by learning, rooted in genes/body

33

drive

aroused/tense state related to a physical need (eg hunger, thirst)

34

drive-reduction theory

idea that humans are motivated to reduce drives (eg eating to reduce hunger), restores homeostasis

35

intrinsic motivation

actions that are rewarding themselves (tend to be more satisfying)

36

extrinsic motivation

actions that only lead to an award (may undermine intrinsic awards)

37

conscious motivation

awareness of our general motivations

38

unconscious motivation

not aware

39

approach motivation

to experience + outcomes

40

avoidance motivation

to not experience - outcomes (more powerful, more risks, prevention focus)

41

terror management theory

we cope w/existential terror by developing a cultural worldview (meaningful immortality through legacies)

42

morality-salience hypothesis

prediction that people who are reminded of their own mortality will work to reinforce their cultural worldviews

43

Hunger signals

orexigenic/anorexigence sent to and from the brain

44

ghrelin

hormone produced in stomach; signals brain to switch hunger on

45

leptin

chemical secreted by fat cells that tell brain to turn hunger off by making it unappealing

46

bulimia nervosa

binge eating followed by purging (bad effects: acid affecting esophagus and teeth)

47

anorexia nervosa

intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake (gender/cultural differences)

48

reasons for obesity?

environmental toxins, too much good bacteria in gut, leptin-resistance, eating too much

49

lateral hypothalamus

receives messages to turn hunger on

50

ventromedial hypothalamus

receives messages to turn hunger off