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Flashcards in CH3 Deck (65)
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1

neurons

cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform info-processing tasks

2

cell body

largest component of neuron coordinates info-processing tasks keeps cell alive (protein synthesis, nrg produc., metabolism)

3

dendrites

receive info from other neurons and relay it to cell body contains receptors to receive neurotransmitters

4

axon

carries info to other neurons, muscles, or glands

5

myelin sheath

insulating layer of fatty material composed of glial cells (support cells in nervous system)

6

four main functions of glial cells

1. surround neurons; hold them in place 2. supply nutrients & oxygen to neurons 3. insulate one neuron from another (like black electrical tape) 4. destroy and remove dead neurons

7

are there more neurons or glial cells? how much more?

10-50X more glial cells (cause one idiot can make a big mess)

8

synapse

junction between neurons (the axon of one and the dendrite/cell body of another)

9

what are the three different types of neurons?

sensory, motor, interneurons

10

sensory neurons

receive info from external world convey info to brain via spinal cord

11

motor neurons

carry signals from spinal cord to muscles to produce movement

12

interneurons

connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons

13

resting potential

difference in electric charge between inside and outside of a neuron's membrane (-70 millivolts)

14

action potential

electric signal conducted along length of neuron's axon to a synapse

15

refractory period

time following an action potential where neuron cannot fire again

16

describe the biological process of a neuron firing

resting potential: ideal circumstances, K+ molecules flow freely across cell membrane, Na+ kept outside action potential: electric stimulation of neuron shuts down K+ channels and opens Na+ channels, Na goes into axon, triggering action potential creates ion gradient, pump in cell membrane moves Na out and K in

17

terminal buttons

knob like structures that branch out from an axon filled with neurotransmitters

18

neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit info across synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites

19

receptors

parts of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters will either initiate or prevent a new electric signal

20

Acetylcholine

neurotransmitter activates muscles to initiate motor behaviour regulates attention, learning, sleep, dreaming associated with Alzheimer's

21

Dopamine

neurotransmitter regulates motor behaviour, motivation, pleasure, emotional arousal high levels linked to schizophrenia, low levels to Parkinson's

22

Glutamate

major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain enhances transmission of info between neurons

23

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain tends to stop firing of neuron

24

nonrepinephrine

involved in states of vigilance, heightened awareness of dangers in environment

25

seratonin

involved in regulation of sleep & wakefulness, eating, aggressive behaviour

26

endorphins

chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centres of the brain tl;dr dulls pain, elevates mood

27

agonist vs antagonist

agonist: excess neurons due to more production, or drugs enhancing their effects antagonist: drugs that block receptor sites (body stops producing natural amount, get off drugs and you're in withdrawal)

28

describe the nervous system

29

sympathstic vs parasympathetic

sympathetic: preps body for challenging/threatening situations

parasympathetic: body @ normal state

30

spinal reflexes

simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle constrictions