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Flashcards in CH7 Deck (43)
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1

What are the three types of learning?

Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Cognitive learning

2

Classical conditioning

when two things become associated with one another

associating a neural stimulus with a natural reflex (Pavlov)

YOU NEED TO HAVE A NATURAL REFLEX

3

Operant conditioning

associate responses with specific consequences

occurs over time

4

Cognitive learning

acquiring new behaviours & info thru observation and information

NOT DIRECT EXPERIENCE

5

learning

process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour or capabilities

(adaption)

6

Habituation

simplest form of learning, occurs in CNS

decrease in response to a repeated stimulus
(e.g. getting used to or bored of something)

7

how is sensory adaptation different from habituation?

sensory adaptation happens in sensory neurons

habituation happens in CNS

8

sensitization

increase in the strength of a response to a repeated stimulus (opposite of habituation)

become more aware, increase in intensity

9

associative learning

classical conditioning and operant conditioning

idea of how you associate things while learning

10

Pavlov

studied digestive system

discovered classical conditioning thru study with salivation on dogs

11

Factors to classical conditioning

unconditioned stimulus: naturally occurring reaction

unconditioned response: reflexive reaction produced by UNCONDITIONED stimulus

conditioned stimulus: stimulus that is initially neutral

conditioned response: stimulus that triggers response even tho it used to be neutral

12

acquisition phase

classical conditioning

phase of classical conditioning when the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are presented together

13

extinction

gradual eliminating of a learned response that occurs when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented

14

spontaneous recovery

tendency of a learned behaviour to recover form extinction after a rest period

15

low order conditioning vs higher order

higher order is the association of a conditioned stimulus with ANOTHER conditioned stimulus

16

generalization

classical conditioning, an adaptive function

being able to respond to a new tone that is slightly different from the conditioned one

(generalizing the two tones together)

17

discrimination

loss of generalization; respond to only ONE tone

18

exposure theory & systematic desensitization

exposing the person to what they're afraid of to separate their fear from the thing itself

19

Watson

taking principles of classical conditioning to see if we can condition fear into someone who had no fear

SO LOL LET'S GO TORTURE A BABY LOOOOL

20

Rescorla-Wagner model

classical conditioning only occurs when the organism has learned to set up an expectation

21

eye blink conditioning research

classical conditioning draws upon implicit memories, not explicit

22

hippocampus

trace conditioning, not delay conditioning

23

amygdala

fear conditioning

24

trace conditioning

trace left in memory, keeps them together

25

Edward Thorndike and the Law of Effect

more like to do stuff that satisfies you than what's unpleasant

26

operant behaviour

behaviour produced by an organism

has some effect on the environment

27

reinforcer

any stimulus/event that increases the behaviour that led to it

positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement

28

punisher

any stimulus that decreases the behaviour that lead to it

positive punishment (add something)
negative punishment (taking something away)

29

Skinner says that an operant response can lead to these three types of consequences

1. neutral consequence neither increases or decreases the probability that the response will occur

2. reinforcement STRENGTHENS the response, makes it more likely to occur

3. punishment WEAKENS the response or makes it less likely to recur

30

escape conditioning

learn a response to get rid of an aversive stimulus

acquired and maintained thru negative reinforcement