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Flashcards in CH5 Deck (60)
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1

Problem of other minds

The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others

2

Benjamin Libet experiment

Timing conscious will

Brain activity occurs before the conscious desire to act does.

EEG measured brain activity

EMG measured finger movement

Questions "Free will"

3

What are the 4 properties of consciousness?

INTENTIONALITY: being directed toward an object

UNITY: integrate info from all senses into one coherent whole

SELECTIVITY: include some objects but not others

TRANSIENCE: tendency to change (e.g. Necker cube)

4

Consciousness

Subjective experience of the world and the mind

5

Dichotic listening

Example of selectivity

A task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each ear

6

Cocktail party phenomenon

Example of selectivity

People tune in one message while filtering others nearby

7

minimal consciousness

low-level sensory awareness/responsiveness

when mind inputs sensations and may output behaviour

8

Phenomenology

How things seem to the conscious person

9

Full consciousness

when you know and can report your mental state

10

Self-consciousness

Distinct level of consciousness

person's attention is drawn to the self as an object

Eg: Self-recognition in the mirror (babies

12

Thought Suppression

Conscious avoidance o a thought

13

Daydreaming

A state of consciousness

seemingly purposeless flow of thoughts comes to mind (default network in brain is activated)

14

Rebound effect of thought suppression

Tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression

15

Ironic processes of mental control

Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can produce them

Dostoevsky
Experiment: people ring a bell when they think of the polar bear after being told not to for 5 minutes

16

Mental control

Attempt to change conscious states of mind

occurs during thought suppression

17

Repression

A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious

Freud

18

Dynamic unconscious

a lifetime of hidden memories and their deepest desires (id)

struggle to control the id

Freud

19

Experience-sampling technique

People are asked to report their conscious experiences at particular times.

Results: people mainly think about current concerns (eg relationships, exercise, jobs, finance, etc)

20

Cognitive unconscious

mental processes that give rise to thoughts, choices, emotions, behaviour even though they are not experienced

21

Altered state of consciousness

occurs during dreaming

A form of experience that departs from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind

22

Subliminal perception

Thought or behaviour that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving

Eg subliminal messages in 1960s theatres "eat popcorn", "drink Coke"

23

Freudian slips

Evidence of unconscious mind in speech errors and lapses of consciousness

25

Electrooculograph (EOG)

Instrument that measures eye movements

(detects/measures REM)

26

REM sleep

stage of sleep

rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity

low brain wave activity (alpha/theta/beta waves) breathing rapid/irregular, vivid/memorable dreams

27

Circadian rhythm

A naturally occurring 24-hour sleep cycle

Hormones (seratonin), blood pressure, and body temperature levels fluctuate throughout the day but they follow a rhythmic pattern

28

Stage 3 of Sleep Cycle (NREM3/N3)

"Deep sleep", dreaming common (not vivid), disorders, delta waves/slow rolling waves

25% duration of total sleep cycle

29

How often does REM sleep occur?

Every 90-120 minutes

20-25% total sleep time

30

Stage 1 of Sleep Cycle (NREM1/N1)

Stage between wakefulness and sleep, drowsy sleep.

Beta/gamma waves (awake) -> alpha waves

5% duration of total sleep cycle

31

Stage 2 of Sleep Cycle (NREM2/N2)

First 'real sleep stage', conscious awareness fades

Theta waves + sleep spindles + K complexes

45% duration of total sleep cycle

32

Which hormones activate and inhibit REM?

Activated by: acetylcholine
Inhibited by: serotonin

Pons

33

Insomnia

difficulty in falling/staying asleep

Chronic: 10% adults, depression/anxiety

34

Sleep apnea

person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep

35

Somnambulism

sleepwalking

36

5 major characteristics that distinguish dreaming from waking consciousness

1: intense emotion
2: illogical thought
3: meaningful sensation
4: uncritical acceptance
5: difficulty remembering

37

Night/sleep terrors

Abrupt awakenings w/ panic and intense emotional arousal

38

Effects of Sleep deprivation

Fatigue, impairment (concentration/creativity/communication)

can lead to: obesity, hypertension, suppressed immune system, irritability, slow performance

REM sleep deprivation: most detrimental

39

Chronic sleep deprivation

Increases cortisol levels -> impair neurons involved in learning/memory

40

Reasons why we sleep

Protective role in evolution
brain restoration/repair of damaged neurons
memory storage/rebuilding/consolidation
encourages growth through secretion of growth hormone

41

Narcolepsy

Sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities

42

Psychoactive drug

Chemical that influences consciousness or behaviour by altering the brain's chemical message system

43

Drug tolerance

Tendency for larger doses of a drug to be quoted over time to achieve the same effect

44

Drug withdrawal symptoms

Physical/psychological dependence on the drug

45

Stimulants

Substances that excite the central nervous system e.g Amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine

Increase neural firing, blood pressure, HR, alertness, boost mood, heighten irritability, arouses nervous system

46

Depressants

Substance that reduce the activity of the central nervous system e.g. Alcohol

Relaxation, lowered inhibition, induce sleep, depress reflexes, impair motor functioning, reduce activity of CNS, prescribed to treat anxiety/sleep problems

47

Narcotics/Opiates

Highly addictive drugs derived from opium, relieves pain

mood changes (intense euphoria), binds to and stimulates receptors normally activated by endorphins (pain relief)

48

Expectancy theory

alcohol effects can be pronounced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations

placebo effect

49

Hallucinogens

Drugs that alter sensation and perception
Causes visual and auditory hallucinations

e.g. LSD

50

Alcohol myopia

Condition that results when alcohol hampers attention

leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations

51

Cocaine's effect on the brain

Blocks re-absorption of dopamine and norepinephrine -> results in over-stimulation of brain circuits to produce euphoric "high"'-> later depletion of dopamine "crash"

52

Blood alcohol levels and behavioural effects

0.05%: lowered alertness/impaired judgement
0.20%: obvious intoxication
0.25%: staggering, impaired sensory perceptions
0.35%: surgical anesthesia, minimal level causing death
0.40%: half of those at this level will die

53

Balanced placebo design

Study design, behaviour is observed following the presence/absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence/absence of a placebo stimulus

54

Who drinks? (Statistics)

72% aged 15 and over Canadians said they had a drink in last year
7.9 mil are heavy drinkers
2008: $19.4 billion on alcohol
Alcohol is a solvent

55

mind-body problem

issue of how the mind is related to the body

(with theories like phrenology, dualism, etc)

56

5 characteristics of Dream Conciousness

1. Feel emotion
2. Dream thought is illogical
3. Sensation fully formed and meaningful
4. Uncritical acceptance (images and events seem normal)
5. Difficulty remembering dream after it's over

57

Manifest content (of a dream)

A dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning

58

Latent content (of a dream)

Dreams true underlying meaning

59

Activation-synthesis model

Dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occur during sleep

60

Psychoactive drugs

Chemicals that influence consciousness or behaviour by ALTERING THE BRAIN'S CHEMICAL MESSAGE SYSTEM

61

Harm reduction approach

Response to high risk behaviours by focusing on reducing the harm these behaviour have on ppl's lives

62

Hypnotic amnesia and hypnotic analgesia

Amnesia: unable to retrieve memories after being hypnotized to forget

Analgesia: reduction of pain thru hypnosis in people susceptible to hypnosis