Ch.26 AKI and CKD Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Exam 3 > Ch.26 AKI and CKD > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.26 AKI and CKD Deck (67)
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1

Metabolic end products are no longer removed from the blood when what happens?

Kidneys Fail.

2

More waste remains in the blood when what happens?

Kidneys Fail.

3

Nitrogenous compounds build up in the blood when what happens?

Kidneys Fail.

4

What nitrogenous compounds build up in the blood when the kidneys fail?

-BUN
-Creatinine

5

What is renal function approximated by?

Initial creatinine level/current creatinine level

6

When the kidneys fail, they fail to regulate what?

-Fluid
-Electrolyte balance
-pH balance of extracellular fluids

7

Can renal failure be acute or chronic?

BOTH

8

What is abrupt onset of renal failure?

AKI (is reversible if caught early and properly treated)

9

AKI causes a rapid decline in what?

Renal Function

10

Progressive Azotemia is the most common indicator of what?

AKI

11

What is a progressive Azotemia?

An accumilation of nitrogenous wastes in blood.

12

Progressive Azotemia causes a decrease in what?

GFR

13

What is an AKI manifested by?

Sharp decrease in urine output.

14

A disproportionate elevation of BUN in relation to serum creatinine levels signals what?

AKI

15

What are signs and symptoms of AKI?

Individual appears dehydrated.

16

What are causes of AKI?

-Decrease in blood flow w/o Ischemic injury (prerenal)
-Ischemic, toxic, or obstructive tubular injury (intrinsic or intrarenal)
-Obstuction of urinary tract outflow (postrenal)

17

How do you treat an AKI?

Typically with a lot of fluids.

18

What is the progressive and irreversable destruction of nephrons and the kidney structure?

CKD/CRF.

19

Kidneys are no longer capable of maintaining an internal environment that is consistent with life during what?

CKD/CRF.

20

Diabetes is the number one cause of what?

Kidney failure.

21

When the kidneys can no longer regulate the volume and solute composition of the extracellular fluid, that is called what?

Renal Failure

22

What is renal failure characterized by?

-Edema
-Metabolic acidosis
-Hyperkalemia
-GFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2

23

When is treatment with dialysis or transplant necessary for survival?

End-stage renal disease.

24

What is end stage renal disease characterized by?

-GFR = 15 mL/min/1.73 m2
-Decreased renal capillaries
-Scarring in glomeruli
-atrophy and fibrosis in tubules
-kidney mass decreased

25

When do the signs and symptoms of CKD typically occur?

Gradually and do not become evident until the disease is too far advanced.

26

GFR is considered the best measure of what?

kidney function

27

What abnormal lab values are there with CKD?*

-Decreased:
H&H
Calcium (hypocalcemia)
Vit D
pH levels (acidosis)

Increased:
phosphate (hyperphosphatemia)
potassium (hyperkalemia)

28

CKD means disorders of water, electrolyte, and acid base balance, causing what?

-Fluid overload
-Hyperkalemia
-Sodium imbalance
-metabolic acidosis

29

CKD alters mineral metabolism causing what?

-Hypocalcemia
-Hyperphosphatemia

30

CKD alters mineral metabolism causing what disorders?

-Secondary Hypothyroidism
-Renal osteodystrophy