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Flashcards in Ch2Research Deck (16):

Theory is generally developed through reflection upon _______.

experience (or from logical speculation).


What is 'restrictiveness' and what are the different levels?

Restrictiveness addresses how inclusive or wide-ranging are specific instances covered by a definition. Least Restrictive, Moderately Restrictive, Most Restrictive.


What is the 'Least Restrictive Definition'?

require only that a phenomenon be described in some way, and not predicted or explained; 'descriptive theory'


What is the 'Moderately Restrictive Definition'?

can be used to make predictions based on the relationships between variables; 'predictive theory'


What is the 'Most Restrictive Definition'?

looks at the why and how questions that support a problem; 'explanatory theory'


What is 'tentativeness of theory'?

theory is only a tentative explanation of a phenomena; theory is not absolute, it is a view that is acceptable at the time, to the scientists studying the problem


What is 'testability of theory'?

theories cannot be proved true because one can never test them under all the conditions under which they might be applied


What are the four levels of the 'scope of theory'?

metatheory, grand theory, general (or middle-range) theory, specific (or practice) theory


What is 'metatheory'?

literally means "theorizing about theory"; highly abstract, focusing on how knowledge is created and organized


What is 'grand theory'?

provide broad conceptualizations of phenomena


What is 'general (or middle-range) theory'?

provide general frameworks for action, but do no purport to address large ideas or entire disciplines with a single theoretical context


What is 'specific (or practice) theory'?

described as particular applications of grand or general theories


When developing an answerable research question, what is the process for moving from a general topic to a specific research question?

1. topic identification and selection 2. problem identification and selection 3. theoretical framework identification and selection 4. question identification and selection 5. determining the research methods


With regards to 'problem identification and selection' (p 19), what is the 'knowledge-knowledge' conflict?

conflict between different types of knowledge, often, between general knowledge and scientifically based knowledge


With regards to 'problem identification and selection' (p 19) what is the focus of 'policy-action conflict'?

conflict examines the relationship between professional actions and internal or external rules.


What are the criteria for evaluating research problems?

1. study is feasible 2. problem is interesting 3. problem is novel 4. problem can be studied ethically 5. question is relevant