Flashcards in Research14 Deck (33):
What are some of the difficulties with qualitative research?
it's time consuming and training is typically limited in education programs
What are some of the reasons for students and clinicians to understand qualitative research?
to be able to understand professional literature that includes it, to be able to carry out qualitative research, and because many of the methods of qualitative research are also methods of everyday clinical practice
What are the assumptions of the qualitative paradigm (presented first in chapter 6)?
1. the world consists of multiple constructed realities, 2. the investigator and the subject are interdependent, 3. knowledge is time and context dependent, 4. it is impossible to distinguish cause from effect, 5. inquiry is value bound
What are some of the types of qualitative designs?
Case study, ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory
How is a case study defined?
not a methodological choice, but a choice of what is to be studied; has boundaries that define the limits of the inquiry
What is the purpose of ethnography?
to describe a culture; requires that the researcher describe the culture from the perspective of an insider
In relation to ethnography, who is a participant-observer?
an outsider that immerses themselves in a new culture so that they can participate in and experience what it means to be within the culture
What is the purpose of the phenomenological approach in qualitative research?
to focus on the "ways in which ordinary members of society attend to their everyday lives"
What do 'grounded theory' methods consist of?
consist of systematic inductive guidelines for collecting and analyzing data to build middle-range theoretical frameworks that explain the collected data
What are the four types of observational roles in qualitative research?
a complete participant, participant-as-observer, observer-as-participant, and complete observer
What is a complete participant?
researcher is a full, legitimate member of the setting being studied
What is the participant-as-observer model?
researcher assumes limited memberships roles within a community for the purpose of conducting the research
What is the observer-as-participant model?
researcher does not assume membership roles within the community; brief contact
What is the complete observer model?
the researcher assumes the role of the "objective observer" who does not change the situation being observed
What are some of the ethical issues associated with observation in qualitative research?
may result in the inclusion of information about the behavior of members of the community who did not specifically agree to participate in the research
What are the techniques and process of observation?
1. define the focus of the observation, 2. researcher must define the content focus, 3. researcher should understand the purpose of the observation
What are 'artifacts'?
any physical evidence that contributes to the understanding of the problem at hand; sometimes known as 'material traces' associated with the research or 'material culture' of the setting.
How are the terms 'document' and record' differentiated in the text?
documents are unofficial personal writings, records are defined as official documents
What is the purpose of 'data analysis' of qualitative research? And what are three steps of such analysis?
to describe the conclusions in interpretive narratives that provide "thick descriptions" of the phenomenon being studied. 1. data management, 2. generating meaning, 3. verification
What is data management?
the collection, storage, and retrieval of information collected within the study
What are two keys to organization of data?
1. identification of the source of the data, 2. code-and-retrieve systems
How does a researcher 'generate meaning'?
noting themes, patterns, and clusters within the data, and identifying relationships among the themes and clusters; data are reduced to small components (coding), reorganized into larger components (themes), and displayed to illustrate relationship
What are the forms of verification?
1. triangulation of results, 2. multiple researchers to code data independently, 3. member checking, 4. an outside researcher audit the analysis, 5. present reflexive accounts of ways the subjectivity of the researcher had an impact on phases of the study
What are some of the methods of qualitative research?
sampling, data collection, and data analysis
What form of sampling is used in qualitative research?
nonprobability sampling methods to identify the individuals who participate within a study
What are the some of the forms of data collection?
interview, observation, and artifacts
What are the different formats of an interview?
structured- oral administration of a written questionnaire, semistructured- based on predeveloped questions, but not as strict as structured; unstructured- researchers have a general idea of the topics they wish to cover, but no particular order
What are some of the concerns with an interview?
1. interviewer's vocab must match that of individual being interviewed, 2. must be sensitive to meaning of words they use, 3. must make interviewee comfortable, 4. must ensure that subjects give informed consent
What are some of the purposes of an interview?
1. to gather information, 2. to give information, 3. to establish a beneficial relationship
What are some of the techniques provided for getting information in an interview?
begin with one or more open-ended questions, use facilitative techniques (uh-huh, I see, etc), avoid leading questions
What are some of the techniques provided for giving information in an interview?
provide a summary of what the informant appears to know (he/she will likely fill in the rest), use non-technical language, ask for questions
What is suggested to establish a relationship during an interview?
to be aware of personal attitudes, values, and points of view.