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Flashcards in Research12 Deck (14):

How is nonexperimental research conducted?

the researcher examines records of past phenomena, documents existing phenomena, or observes new phenomena


What are the four situations in which nonexperimental design may be appropriate?

1. when little is known about the topic, 2. when outcomes are not easily quantified, 3. when ethical issues preclude experimental approaches, 4. when the purpose of research is something other than determination of treatment effectiveness


What is the purpose of descriptive research? And what are the two forms detailed in the text?

to document the nature of a phenomenon through the systematic collection of data; retrospective and prospective descriptive research


What is the purpose of retrospective descriptive research?

to document the past; past may be of inherent interest, may be used to evaluate the present against the past, or may be used to make decisions in the present based on information from the past


What are some types of descriptive nonexperimental research typically conducted retrospectively?

evaluation research, epidemiological research, historical research, and case report or case study


What is the purpose of prospective descriptive research?

enables the researcher to control the data that are collected for the purpose of describing a phenomenon.


What are the four basic methods of data collection for prospective descriptive research?

observation, examination, interview, and questionnaire


What are the analyses of relationships?

establishing relationships among variables w/o manipulation may suggest areas for later study, allows scores on one variable to predicted based on scores of another, to determine the reliability of measurement tools, to determine the validity of a measure


What are the two ways in which analysis of relationships can be analyzed?

retrospective analysis of relationships, an prospective analysis of relationships


How can retrospective analysis of relationships be analyzed?

through use of medical record or through secondary analysis of data collected for other purposes


What is one way in which prospective analysis of relationships is used in rehabilitation research?

to establish the validity of intervention


What is the purpose of 'analysis of differences'? And what are the two forms used?

to focus on whether groups or treatments are different in some reliable way; retrospective and prospective analysis of differences


What four ways are presented in the text to retrospectively analyze differences?

outcomes research, case-control design, cohort design, and meta-analysis


What is the purpose of prospective analysis of difference?

to determine the effects of some intervention on a DV by analyzing the differences in groups that were and were not exposed to a manipulation or the differences within a single group exposed to more than one experimental treatment