Flashcards in Research12 Deck (14):
How is nonexperimental research conducted?
the researcher examines records of past phenomena, documents existing phenomena, or observes new phenomena
What are the four situations in which nonexperimental design may be appropriate?
1. when little is known about the topic, 2. when outcomes are not easily quantified, 3. when ethical issues preclude experimental approaches, 4. when the purpose of research is something other than determination of treatment effectiveness
What is the purpose of descriptive research? And what are the two forms detailed in the text?
to document the nature of a phenomenon through the systematic collection of data; retrospective and prospective descriptive research
What is the purpose of retrospective descriptive research?
to document the past; past may be of inherent interest, may be used to evaluate the present against the past, or may be used to make decisions in the present based on information from the past
What are some types of descriptive nonexperimental research typically conducted retrospectively?
evaluation research, epidemiological research, historical research, and case report or case study
What is the purpose of prospective descriptive research?
enables the researcher to control the data that are collected for the purpose of describing a phenomenon.
What are the four basic methods of data collection for prospective descriptive research?
observation, examination, interview, and questionnaire
What are the analyses of relationships?
establishing relationships among variables w/o manipulation may suggest areas for later study, allows scores on one variable to predicted based on scores of another, to determine the reliability of measurement tools, to determine the validity of a measure
What are the two ways in which analysis of relationships can be analyzed?
retrospective analysis of relationships, an prospective analysis of relationships
How can retrospective analysis of relationships be analyzed?
through use of medical record or through secondary analysis of data collected for other purposes
What is one way in which prospective analysis of relationships is used in rehabilitation research?
to establish the validity of intervention
What is the purpose of 'analysis of differences'? And what are the two forms used?
to focus on whether groups or treatments are different in some reliable way; retrospective and prospective analysis of differences
What four ways are presented in the text to retrospectively analyze differences?
outcomes research, case-control design, cohort design, and meta-analysis