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Flashcards in Ch8Research Deck (13):

How is the validity of a piece of research defined?

The extent to which the conclusions of that research are believable and useful.


What are the four types of validity?

Internal validity, construct validity, external validity, and statistical conclusion validity


How is internal validity defined?

the extent to which the results of a study demonstrate that a causal relationship exists between the IV and DV.


What is considered the best way to control threats to internal validity?

the classical randomized controlled trial, with random assignments to experimental and control groups


What general strategy do researchers use to increase internal validity?

maximize their control over all aspects of the research project


What are some of the threats to internal validity?

History, maturation, testing, instrumentation, statistical regression to the mean, assignment (subject selected), subject attrition, interactions between assignment and maturation, history, or instrumentation, diffusion or imitation of treatments


With what is construct validity concerned?

the meaning of variables within a study


What are some of the threats to construct validity?

construct underrepresentation, experimenter expectancies, interaction between different treatments, interaction between testing and treatment


With what is external validity concerned?

to whom, in what settings, and at what times the results of research can be generalized


What are some of the threats to external validity?

selection, setting, time


How is external validity increased in single-subject research?

through replication


What are 'cumulative relationships' in regards to the relationships among types of validity?

a change that influences one of the threats influences other threats in the same way


What are 'reciprocal threats' in regards to the relationships among types of validity?

when controlling a threat to one type of validity leads to realization of a different threat to validity