Flashcards in Ch.5 Deck (58):
Meaning that it has gained one or more electrons
The addition of phosphate to a chemical compound
ATP is usually generated when a high-energy phosphate is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (a substrate) to ADP.
Substrate level phosphorylation
Electrons are transferred from organic compounds to one group of electron carriers (usually to NAD+ and FAD)
The sequence of electron carriers used in oxidative phosphorylation
Electron transport chain
* 3rd mechanism of phosphorylation
* occurs only in photosynthetic cells, which contains light trapping pigments such as chlorophylls.
The mechanism of ATP synthesis using the electron transport chain
The breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy, is therefore of great importance of cell metabolism
Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate acid, is usually the first stage in carbohydrate catabolism.
Does not use oxygen
Respiration in which the final electronic scepter in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)
A series of biochemical reactions in which the large amounts of potential chemical energy stored in Acetyl CoA is released step-by-step.
Krebs Cycle/ Citric Acid/ Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA)
An ATP-generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic molecule.
To produce energy from glucose, microrganisms use 2 general processes:
They both use glycolysis and break down glucose
1) Cellular respiration
ADH, FADH2 carry their electrons to where in the eukaryotes cell?
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
ADH, FADH2 carry their electrons to where in the prokaryote cell?
When ADH and FADH2 dump their electrons, what do the electrons do?
Compromise energy, to create ATP
Electrons drive the ________ to higher concentration
What happens in the preparation step?
* Loses one molecule of CO2.
* Becomes a two carbon compound.
* NAD+ is reduce to NADH.
Why are the reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2 the most important products of the Krebs cycle?
Because they contain most of the energy originally stored in glucose.
Electrons end up in the ___________ if you're Eukaryote.
Inner Membrane Space
Electrons end up in the ________ if you're Prokaryote.
Peri plasma membrane
Removal of electrons from an atom or molecule, a reaction that often proceeds energy
In aerobic respiration a total of how many molecules of ATP can be generated from one molecule of glucose.
38 molecules of ATP
Where do the electrons end up?
Electron transport chain and then into the matrix where they get added to oxygen and protons to make H2O.
Role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
To find the electronic central.
Electrons start of in _____ and _____ and end up in _____.
What do the protons do?
The defuse, zoom right through the big open channel into ATP, which the terminal spins really fast, make 300 ATP every second.
How many ATP total are made from 1 glucose?
38 ATPs total
What is going to happen if oxygen is not available?
You can use glucose us fuel
___________ is when you use anything other than oxygen as the final electrical
Some that use cellular respiration, can they use an alternative pathway to make ATP?
Most common Fermentation pathways
1) lactic Acid Fermentation
2) Alcohol Fermentation
What makes doug rise?
Why does bread dough rise?
Yeast ferment the sugars that are in the bread dough
Lactic Acid Fermentation
* A catabolic process, beginning with glycolysis, that produces lactic acid to reoxidize NADH.
* Pyruvic acid is reduced by NADH to lactic acid.
* A catabolic process, beginning with glycolysis, that produces ethyl alcohol to reoxidize NADH.
* Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to produce ethanol.
The enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electrical stuff there is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation, and O2 is not required.
The conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy; The light-fueled synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide (Co2).
What process of energy generous metabolism?
2 pathways to photosynthesis
1) Light-dependent (light) reactions
2) Light-independent (dark) reactions
Photosynthesis would be an ________ reaction because it's building.
2 types of Photophosphorylation
1) Cyclic Photophosphorylation
2) Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
* Means building
* Makes sugar precursor that are going to be made in sugars and starches.
When the light strikes, what part of the micro is a striking that will drive photosynthesis?
The thylakoids (pancakes) in the chloroplast.
Light contains energy called
Once the light is harvested, air used to do work, then we got _________.
What happens to the chlorophyll that is being bombarded with the light?
The entire chlorophyll starts to vibrate.
2 electrons for every chlorophyll, where those electrons go?
* Electron transport chain, which is located in the thylakoid membrane.l
* No inner or outer membrane because you're not using mitochondria.
You need water to drive photosynthesis, so enzymes come along and through this process called _______, the water gets torn apart.
What are photosystems made up of?
Chlorophyll and other pigments packed into thylakoid membranes.
The electrons released from chlorophyll by light return to chlorophyll after passage along the electron transfer chain.
* Electrons are used to reduce NADP+.
* The electrons from H2O or H2S replace those lost from chlorophyll.
The process by which light energy to convert ADP and phosphate to ATP.
Light-dependent (light) Reaction
The process by which electrons and energy from ATP are used to reduce CO2 to sugar.
Light-independent (dark) Reactions
What are you going to phosphorylate in photophosphorylation?
ADP to produce ATP