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Flashcards in Ch.5 Deck (58):
1

Meaning that it has gained one or more electrons

Reduction

2

The addition of phosphate to a chemical compound

Phosphorylation

3

ATP is usually generated when a high-energy phosphate is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (a substrate) to ADP.

Substrate level phosphorylation

4

Electrons are transferred from organic compounds to one group of electron carriers (usually to NAD+ and FAD)

Oxidative phosphorylation

5

The sequence of electron carriers used in oxidative phosphorylation

Electron transport chain

6

Photophosphorylation

* 3rd mechanism of phosphorylation
* occurs only in photosynthetic cells, which contains light trapping pigments such as chlorophylls.

7

The mechanism of ATP synthesis using the electron transport chain

Chemiosmosis

8

The breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy, is therefore of great importance of cell metabolism

Carbohydrate Catabolism

9

Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate acid, is usually the first stage in carbohydrate catabolism.

Glycolysis

10

Does not use oxygen

Anaerobe

11

Uses oxygen

Aerobe

12

Respiration in which the final electronic scepter in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)

Aerobic Respiration

13

A series of biochemical reactions in which the large amounts of potential chemical energy stored in Acetyl CoA is released step-by-step.

Krebs Cycle/ Citric Acid/ Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA)

14

Cellular respiration

An ATP-generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic molecule.

15

To produce energy from glucose, microrganisms use 2 general processes:
They both use glycolysis and break down glucose

1) Cellular respiration
2) Fermentation

16

ADH, FADH2 carry their electrons to where in the eukaryotes cell?

Inner membrane of the mitochondria

17

ADH, FADH2 carry their electrons to where in the prokaryote cell?

Plasma Membrane

18

When ADH and FADH2 dump their electrons, what do the electrons do?

Compromise energy, to create ATP

19

Electrons drive the ________ to higher concentration

Proton Pumps

20

What happens in the preparation step?

* Loses one molecule of CO2.
* Becomes a two carbon compound.
* NAD+ is reduce to NADH.

21

Why are the reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2 the most important products of the Krebs cycle?

Because they contain most of the energy originally stored in glucose.

22

Electrons end up in the ___________ if you're Eukaryote.

Inner Membrane Space

23

Electrons end up in the ________ if you're Prokaryote.

Peri plasma membrane

24

Oxidation

Removal of electrons from an atom or molecule, a reaction that often proceeds energy

25

In aerobic respiration a total of how many molecules of ATP can be generated from one molecule of glucose.

38 molecules of ATP

26

Where do the electrons end up?

Electron transport chain and then into the matrix where they get added to oxygen and protons to make H2O.

27

Role of oxygen in cellular respiration?

To find the electronic central.

28

Electrons start of in _____ and _____ and end up in _____.

ADH
FADH2
Water

29

What do the protons do?

The defuse, zoom right through the big open channel into ATP, which the terminal spins really fast, make 300 ATP every second.

30

How many ATP total are made from 1 glucose?

38 ATPs total

31

What is going to happen if oxygen is not available?

You can use glucose us fuel

32

___________ is when you use anything other than oxygen as the final electrical

Anaerobic Respiration

33

Some that use cellular respiration, can they use an alternative pathway to make ATP?

Yes, fermentation.

34

Most common Fermentation pathways

1) lactic Acid Fermentation
2) Alcohol Fermentation

35

What makes doug rise?

Co2 gas

36

Why does bread dough rise?

Yeast ferment the sugars that are in the bread dough

37

Lactic Acid Fermentation

* A catabolic process, beginning with glycolysis, that produces lactic acid to reoxidize NADH.
* Pyruvic acid is reduced by NADH to lactic acid.

38

Alcohol Fermentation

* A catabolic process, beginning with glycolysis, that produces ethyl alcohol to reoxidize NADH.
* Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to produce ethanol.

39

The enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electrical stuff there is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation, and O2 is not required.

Fermentation

40

Photosynthesis

The conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy; The light-fueled synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide (Co2).

41

What process of energy generous metabolism?

Photosynthesis

42

2 pathways to photosynthesis

1) Light-dependent (light) reactions
2) Light-independent (dark) reactions

43

Photosynthesis would be an ________ reaction because it's building.

Anabolism

44

2 types of Photophosphorylation

1) Cyclic Photophosphorylation
2) Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

45

Synthesis means:

* Means building
* Makes sugar precursor that are going to be made in sugars and starches.

46

When the light strikes, what part of the micro is a striking that will drive photosynthesis?

The thylakoids (pancakes) in the chloroplast.

47

Light contains energy called

Potential energy

48

Once the light is harvested, air used to do work, then we got _________.

Kinetic Energy

49

What happens to the chlorophyll that is being bombarded with the light?

The entire chlorophyll starts to vibrate.

50

2 electrons for every chlorophyll, where those electrons go?

* Electron transport chain, which is located in the thylakoid membrane.l
* No inner or outer membrane because you're not using mitochondria.

51

You need water to drive photosynthesis, so enzymes come along and through this process called _______, the water gets torn apart.

Hydrolysis

52

What are photosystems made up of?

Chlorophyll and other pigments packed into thylakoid membranes.

53

Cyclic Photophosphorylation

The electrons released from chlorophyll by light return to chlorophyll after passage along the electron transfer chain.

54

Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

* Electrons are used to reduce NADP+.
* The electrons from H2O or H2S replace those lost from chlorophyll.

55

The process by which light energy to convert ADP and phosphate to ATP.

Light-dependent (light) Reaction

56

The process by which electrons and energy from ATP are used to reduce CO2 to sugar.

Light-independent (dark) Reactions

57

What are you going to phosphorylate in photophosphorylation?

ADP to produce ATP

58

Where do the electrons go in photosynthesis?

To recharge the chlorophyll and then O2 gas is released.