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Flashcards in chap 12 CNS Deck (107):
1

where does CNS develop from

from embryonic neural tube

2

what does the neural tube become

the brain and spinal cord

3

what do neural crest cells give rise to

sensory and autonomic neurons of the PNS

4

what does the opening of the neural tube become

the ventricles

5

what are the ventricles

four chambers within the brain
filled with CSF
continous with each other and with the central canal of the spinal cord

6

anatomy of the brain

cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
diencephalon
brain stem
cerebellum

7

what is the largest portion of the brain

cerebrum

8

how much does the cerebrum weigh

1200 g - females
1400g - males

9

what is the surface of the cerebrum made of

gyri
sulci

10

what is gyri

ridges

11

what are sulci

grooves

12

surface gyri and sulci of cerebrum

central sulcus
precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus

13

what are fissures

deep grooves that divide the cerebrum into different regions of the brain

14

major fissure of cerebrum

longitudinal fissure

15

surface lobes of the cerebrum

frontal lobe
temporal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe

16

actions of frontal lobe

voluntary motor function
motivation
agression
smell
mood

17

actions of temporal lobe

olfactory and auditory input
memory
abstract thought
judgement

18

actions of parietal lobe

integration of sensory information except smell, hearing, and vision

19

actions of occipital lobe

vision and integration of visual input

20

integration

reception and evaluation of information

21

specialized areas of the cerebrum

frontal lobe, motor cortex
other lobes, sensory cortex

22

actions of motor cortex

voluntary skilled muscle movements

23

actions of sensory cortex

sensory interpretation and association

24

layers of the cerebrum

cerebral cortex
cerebral medulla
basal nuclei

25

describe cerebral cortex

gray matter
1/8 thick
composed of neuron cell bodies
highly convoluted
involved in higher brain functions and motor

26

why is the cerebral cortex gray

made up of cell body, no myelin

27

what are the higher brain functions

speech
memory
logic
emotion
interpretation of sensory input
consciousness

28

describe cerebral medulla

myelinated nerve tracts inside the gray matter that connect areas of the CNS

29

example of cerebral medulla

corpus callosum

30

what is the corpus callosum

connector between hemispheres

31

why is the cerebral medulla white

white matter because there is more myelin

32

describe basal nuclei

internal islands of gray matter dispersed bilaterally in the inferior cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain

33

what do basal nuclei do

important in controlling and modifying motor functions; especially in start & stop movements

34

what clinical diseases affect the basal nuclei

parkinson's disease
huntington's disease

35

what is parkinson's disease

slow tremors
cells that make dopamine are destroyed and dopamine is NT for muscle function

36

treatment for parkinson's disease

L-dopa

37

what is huntington's disease

rapid jerky movements
genetic
degeneration of basal nuclei and cerebral cortex

38

treatment for huntington's disease

block NTs

39

describe diencephalon

sits on top of the brain stem
enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres

40

the three parts that make up the diencephalon

thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus

41

describe thalamus

surrounds 3rd ventricle
relay station to cerebral cortex for sensory impulses

42

describe hypothalamus

under the thalamus
important ANS center
important part of limbic system

43

what does hypothalamus regulate

body temp
hunger
thirst
satiety
swallowing
emotions

44

what is attached to the hypothalamus

the pituitary gland

45

how do the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus work together

the hypothalamus indirectly influences many body functions by sending signals through the pituitary gland to regulate its secretion of hormones

46

what kind of tissue is the pituitary gland

endocrine

47

what body functions are regulated from the hormones

metabolism
reproduction
responses to stressful stimuli
urine production

48

describe the epithalamus

forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle
houses the pineal body
includes choroid plexus

49

define plexus

group of blood vessels

50

what does pineal body do

melatonin production (sleep/wake cycle)
mood

51

what does choroid plexus do

forms CSF

52

describe the brain stem

attaches to the spinal cord
integrates many vital functions

53

what happens if there is minor damage to the brain stem and why

can cause death
higher integration areas like the cerebellum can withstand more damage

54

parts of the brain stem

midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata

55

describe midbrain

composed mostly of tracts of nerve fibers

56

describe pons

they include nuclei involved in the control of breathing

57

describe medulla oblongata

most inferior part of the brain stem
merges into the spinal cord
includes important ascending and descending nerve tracts

58

what does the medulla oblongata control

autonomic control center for heart rate
blood pressure
breathing
swallowing
vomiting

59

describe cerebellum

two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces

60

what does cerebellum do

provides involuntary coordination of body movements
plays a role in posture and equilibrium

61

ways that CNS is protected

scalp and skin
skull and vertebral column
meninges
CSF
blood brain barrier
blood supply to the brain

62

what are meninges

membranes

63

types of meninges

dura mater - superficial
arachnoid mater
pia mater - deepest

64

2 layers of dura mater

periosteum
meningeal layer

65

what do the 2 layers of dura mater form

dural sinuses

66

describe CSF

similar to blood but no red blood cells and much lower protein level
circulated in subarachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal
clear in color

67

purpose of CSF

supplies nutrients
form protective cushion around CNS
removes wastes

68

describe ventricles

right and left lateral ventricles
composed of anterior, posterior, and inferior horns
3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, and 4th ventricle
apertures

69

what are apertures

narrowed openings into subarachnoid space of spinal cord

70

purpose of dural venous sinuses

blood and CSF collection for return to circulatory vessels exiting skull

71

describe the blood brain barrier

tight junctions between endothelial blood vessel cells cause substances to pass through cells to become CSF
large substances can not utilize the route between cells and are barred from CSF

72

what kind of substances can get through blood brain barrier

lipid soluble substances through lipid-soluble transport
ex. nicotine, ethanol, heroin

73

how do water-soluble molecules get across blood brain barrier

move across by mediated transport
ex. amino acids and glucose

74

how much O2 is used by brain

20% of all oxygen consumption

75

can nerve cells store energy

no
they cant store glucose or energy compounds like muscle tissue

76

what happens if there is an interruption of blood flow to the brain

pass out or cause irreversible brain damage

77

drugs that can get past blood brain barrier

L-Dopa
lipid-soluble drugs

78

clinical applications of brain

meningitis
hydrocephalus
concussion
contusion
degenerative injuries

79

describe hydrocephalus

child has fontanels and can expand
a blockage of drainage of CSF

80

what is a concussion

disturbance of brain function
shaking

81

what is a contusion

bruising of brain, permanent
ex. subdural hematoma

82

some degenerative injuries

cerebrovascular accidents
alzheimer's disease

83

describe CVA

death of brain tissue because of blood depravation

84

causes of CVA

hemorrhagic
ischemic

85

what is the glutamate cascade

during a stroke, oxygen deprived presynaptic neurons release large amounts of glutamate
glutamate binds to postsynaptic neurons and stimulates them to release nitric oxide (NO)
NO diffuses from postsynaptic cells and causes damage to surrounding cells

86

describe alzheimer's disease

progressive degenerative brain disease
characterized by abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons

87

symptons of alzheimer's disease

memory loss
irritability
confusion
hallucinations
death

88

describe spinal cord

nerve pathways to & from the brain
extends from medulla oblongata to the region of T12

89

what is it called below T12

cauda equine

90

anatomy of spinal cord

internal butterfly shaped gray matter
exterior white matter
central canal filled with CSF
anterior median fissure
cushioned and protected by meninges

91

gray matter of spinal cord

horns
interneurons

92

types of horns

dorsal horns
ventral horns
lateral horns

93

exterior white matter

ascending & descending myelinated nerve tracts
posterior, anterior, and lateral columns (funiculus)

94

the meninges that protect the spinal cord

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

95

spinal cord dura mater

separated from the periosteum by the epidural space

96

epidural space

fat
blood vessels

97

where is anesthesia given for child birth

epidural space

98

what is the subdural space

between the dura and arachnoid mater
can fill with blood as a result of trauma and exert pressure on the brain (subdural hematoma)

99

what is the subarachnoid space

between the arachnoid mater and pia mater
filled with CSF
below L2 injections and spinal tap

100

spinal tap

fluid drawn out for lab exam

101

pia mater

innermost delicate membrane attached directly to the spinal cord

102

spinal nerves

dorsal root
ventral root

103

dorsal root

sensory neurons
cell bodies from dorsal root ganglia (outside of cord)

104

ventral root

motor neurons
cell bodies in ventral horn of gray matter

105

flaccid paralysis

complete
damage to ventral motor roots or anterior horn
no muscle tone maintained (atrophy)

106

spastic paralysis

jerky uncontrolled movements
damage to cerebral cortex but spinal reflexes remain intact

107

paraplegic

both lower limbs affected
damage to spinal cord at level of T1-L2