chap 3 cell cycle and cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chap 3 cell cycle and cancer Deck (21):
1

what is differentiation

taking on a cellular fate

2

what are the 3 germ layers

endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm

3

what happens once a cell has differentiated and then divides

the 2 new cells should follow their DNA instructions and function as the old cell once did, as a member of a tissue

4

what is cellular clock

after a certain amount of time or certain number of cell divisions, cells die

5

apoptosis

programmed cell death

6

how is cell death hastened
?

free radical detoxification slows as our organelles age

7

what limits the amount of times mitosis can occur in a cell line?

peices of telomeres, DNA structures on the ends of chromosomes, break off during mitosis
replacement is limited

8

what is cancer?

uncontrolled division and spread of cells in the body

9

what is neoplasm?

abnormal mass of growing cells
a more general term for cancer

10

kinds of neoplasm?

benign tumors
malignant tumors

11

what is a benign tumor?

cells are encapsulated, growing but not spreading
cells functions correctly in the wrong body area like fat tumors
can be successfully removed before they pressure on other organs

12

what is a malignant tumor?

cancerous
lack of tumor suppression genes
unregulated cell growth

13

what happens if a mistake is made during mitosis?

some sections of DNA sense it and halt the replication process, killing the abnormal cell

14

what happens if you dont have tumor suppression genes?

cells with improper DNA sequences can survive mitosis. they can then divide uncontrollably and give rise to cancer

15

what are carcinogens?

agents that cause mutations in DNA?

16

examples of carcinogens

radiation
mechanical trauma
viral infections
chemicals (tobacco, saccharine)

17

what happens during unregulated cell growth

cells no longer respond to normal control mechanisms
no longer heed to normal signals that regulate cell cycle
no longer exhibit density-dependent inhibition
dont stop dividing when growth factors are depleted

18

what does density dependent stand for?

contact

19

what is metastasis?

cells spreading through the body

20

how does cancer kill?

by displacing and putting pressure on normal tissues, cutting off their blood supply and or interrupting organ function

21

diagnosis and treatments of cancer

biopsy
surgical removal
x-ray treatment of surround area to kill metastasized cells
chemotherapy to find and destroy escaped cells