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Flashcards in Chap 4 tissues Deck (65):
1

Tissues

fabric or group of cells with similar structure and function

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primary types of tissues

epithelium (covering

connective (support)

Muscle (movement)

Nervous (control); signaling

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how do you identify tissues?

1. cells

2. ECF (extracellular fluid); ground substance

3. fibers

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biopsy

living tissue

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autopsy

determing cause of death after death

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epithelial tissues

sheet of cells that cover all free body surfaces (inside and out) forming an interface between two environments

line internal tubes, form organs

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what are the functions of epithelial tissues?

1. protection

2. absorption

3. filtration

4. secretion

5. sensory reception

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what are the special characteristics of epithelial tissues?

1. cellularity

2. specialized contacts

3. polarity

4. supported by connective tissue

5. avascular but innervated

6. regeneration

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cellularity

tightly packed cells

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desmosomes

confers strength

anchoring junctions between cells that provide structural strength

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apical surface

(free surface) surface that is in contact with air or opening

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basal surface

(bound surface) usually bound to connective tissue

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apical surface special structural features

surface area is increased

microvilli

cillia

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microvilli


fingerlike extensions that increase the surface area, which increases absorption and secretion

may create adhesion points for secreted mucus

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cillia

microtubules (hair like) project from cell membrane as hairs that move in one direction

nicotine decreases cilliary action

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lateral cell junctions

desmosomes

tight junctions

gap junctions

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tight junctions

rivets that seal extracellular space

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gap junctions

allow substances to leak between cells

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what makes up the basal surface?

basal lamina

basement membrane

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basal lamina

noncellular, adhesive sheet of glycoproteins secreted by epithelial tissue

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functions of basal lamina

selective filter

scaffold to which epithelial cells can grow upon

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basement membrane

just beneath the basal lamina

reinforces epithelial sheet and defines epithelial boundary

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how to classify epithelium tissue?

1st name is the # of cell layers

2nd name is the shape of cells

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cell layers

simple - one layer

stratified - more than one layer

pseudostratified - looks like multiple but only one

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shape of cells

squamos - flat; nucleus - flat and disc like

cuboidal - cube shaped; nucleus - large and round

columnar - column like; nucleus - oval

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glands

one or more epithelial cells organizes to secrete a particular product

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secretory pathway

RER --> golgi --> vesicles --> exocytosis

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2 major gland types

endocrine glands

exocrine glands

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endocrine glands

ductless

secretions are hormones

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hormones

manurfactured to react with a specific target organ and or cells

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exocrine glands

secrete products to a body surface (skin surface, body cavities, or passages leading to outside)

 

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unicellular exocrine glands

single goblet cell secretes mucin

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multicellular exocrine glands

sweat and oil glands

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connective tissue classes

1. connective tissue proper

2. cartillage

3. osseous tissue (bone)

4. blood

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functions of connective tissue

1. binding

2. protection

3. insulation

4. transportation

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structural elements of connective tissue

1. cells

2. ECM (extracellular matrix); made up of fibers and ECF

37

connective tissue cell types

fibroctye, can become fibroblasts

chondrocyte, (chondro=cartillage)

osteocyte

red blood cells/ white blood cells

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ECM (extracellular matrix) composed of...

ground substance (ECF)

ffibers

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composition of ECF

water

adhesion proteins/ desmosomes

polysaccharide molecules

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types of fibers


collagen fibers (strength)

elastic fibers (recoil)

reticular fibers (fine collagen but give more)

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muscle tissue function

produce movement

contain internal protein microfilaments for contraction

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types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle - attached to skeleton

cardiac muscle - branched

smooth muscle - organs

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nervous tissue cell types

neuroglia

neurons

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neuroglia

nerve support cells

all kinds of functions to support the neurons.

dont do electrical signals

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functions of neurons

irriatability - can sense and respond

conductivity - send impulses to other areas of body

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structrual components of neurons

dendrites - multiple, reciever

cell body

axon - 1, sender

axonal terminals - endpoint of axon

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types of tissue repair

external defenses

internal defenses

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external defenses of tissue repair


mechanical

chemical

microbiological

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mechanical defenses of external tissue repair

skin

mucus membranes - collects things

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chemicals defenses of external tissue repair


fatty acids - lower pH on skin, bacteria doesnt like acidity

enzymes (lysozyme & pepsin) - digestive enzymes

stomach acid

vaginal secretions

urine

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internal defenses of tissue repair

inflammatory response

immunity repsonse

 

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inflammatory response


nonspecific - chemicals and WBC

develops quickly

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immunity response


specific - like antibodies

takes longer

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2 ways tissue repair occurs

regeneration

fibrosis

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regeneration

replacement of destroyed tissue with same kind of tissue

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fibrosis

replacement of destroyed tissue with fibrous connective tissue

scar tissue

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steps of tissue repair

inflammation

organization

regeneration and fibrosis

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Inflammation


injured tissue cells, macrophages, mast cells, and other release inflammatory chemicals (histamines)

WBCs (neutrophils & monocytes) and plasma fluid rich in clotting proetines, antibodies and other substances seep into injured area

excess fluid, damaged cells, and other debris are evnetually removed by lymphatic vessels and/or phagocytized by macrophages

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histamine functions

causes capillaries to dilate and become very leaky (permeable)

leads to redness, heat, swelling and pain (pain comes from fluid pressure on nerves)

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functions of clotting proteins


clotting proteins form clot

stops loss of blood

holds edges of wound together

isolates injured area

clot eventually turns to scab after being exposed to air and drying

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organization


starts before inflammatory response is complete

granulation tissue forms

macrophages digest blood clot and collagen fiber deposit continues

once enought matrix has accumulated, fibroblasts revert to resting stage or undergo apoptosis

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granulation tissue


pink tissue found in wounds

fibroblasts secrete growth factors and new collagen fibers bridge the gap and pull wound together

 

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apoptosis


programmed cell death

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steps of regeneration and fibrosis


surface epithelium continues to grow under scab

fibrous tissue beneath matures and contracts until it resembles skin

end result is fully regenerated epithelium and underlying area of scar tissue

the thin white scar is collagen fiber

65


regenerative capacity of different tissues, from best to worst

1. epithelial tissues, bone, areolar, and flood forming tissue

2. smooth muscles and dense reular connective tissue

3. skeletal muscle and cartillage

4. cardiac muscle and nervouse tissue have no regeneration