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Flashcards in chap 5 integumentary system Deck (53):
1


integumentary system


skin

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composition of integumentary system


skin

skin derivatives

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skin derivatives


sweat glands

oil glands

hair

nails

4


skin functions


protects deeper tissue

aids in heat regulation

aids in excretion of urea and uric acids

synthesizes vitamin D

detection of stimuli

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types of tissue damage


mechanical

chemical

bacterial

thermal

ultraviolet

dessication

6


dessication


helps from drying out

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heat regulation


vasodilation and vasoconstriction

8


sweat


urea and uric acids

9

structure of skin


epidermis

dermis

hypodermic (subcutaneous)

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epidermis


made up of stratified squamos epithelium

keratinocytes form several layers

melanin found here

11

layers of epidermis


stratum basale

stratum spinosum

stratum granulosum

stratum lucidum

stratum corneum

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stratum basale functions


origin of keratinocytes for superficial strate

high mitotic activy (cell division)

contains melanocyes (keratinocyte that has melanin); melanin goes on sunny side

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what is in the stratum spinosum?


dendrite cells

14

what happens in the statum granulosum?


keratin granules starting to show

secrete glycolipid, border between living and dead

stoppage of water

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what is stratum corneum?


located at exposed surface of skin

protective barrier of dead, durable, and expendable cells

cells are filled with keratin

 

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melanin

pigment produced by melanocytes

amount produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight

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albinism


failure to produce tyrosinase

genetic mutation that results in not having the genetic code to make the protein tyrsoinase (enzyme) that produces melanin in the body

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layers of dermis


papillary layer

reticular layer

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whats in the pappillary layer?


supports and nourishes underlying epidermis

projections called dermal papillae

pain receptors

capillary loops

less fibers allows for WBC movement

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whats in the reticular layer?


loaded with collagen and elastic fibers

blood vessels

glands

nerve receptors

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hypodermic (subcutaneous)


not part of skin

anchors skin to underlying organs

composed mostly of adipose tissue

when it is loaded with fat, called saturated subcutaneous

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appendages of the skin


sebaceous glands

sweat glands

hair

nails

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sebaceous glands


produce sebum (oil); lubricant

ducts empty into hair follicle

glands are activated at puberty (hormone control)

24

types of sweat glands


widely distributed under skin

eccrine (merocrine)

apocrine (puberty)

 

 

25

eccrine sweat glands


coiled portion in dermis, open via duct to pore on skin surface

most numerous

helps dissipate excess heat through evaporative cooling; hot water leaves the body to cool us down

 

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apocrine sweat glands


puberty

ducts empty into hair follics

axillary and pubic areas

activated by stress, pain, and sexual excitement

fatty acid and protein excretion; break down of bacteria produces body odor

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modified sweat glands


ceruminous glands

mammary glands

 

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ceruminous glands


produce cerumen (earwax)

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hair


strand of dead, hard keratinzed epithelial cells projecting from a tunnel in the epidermal and dermal layers (hair follicle)

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hair follice


tunnel that hair grows in

formed by mitotically active stratum basale cells

melanocytes provide pigment for hait color

dermal cappillaries provide blood supply

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parts of hair


bulb

root

shaft

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arrector pili function


smooth muscle

makes hair stand on end

senses movement

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teratogenic


messes up embryo

34

rogaine is


minoxidil

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nails structures


nail fold

eponychium

nail body

 

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nail body


sheet of hard keratin attached to nail bed

lunule

more oxygen in blood, more red will appear

37

lunule


crescent shaped vascular are at proximal end of the nail bed and visible through the nail

38

injection sites


intradermal

subcutaneous

intramuscular

intravenous

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intradermal (ID)


in dermis 10-15 angle

skin allergy tests

botox and collagen

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subcutaneous (SQ)


below skin 45 angle

insulin

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intramuscular (IM)


if small amounts faster than SQ cuz of high vascularity

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intravenous (IV)


fastest method

less pressure, faster delivery thats why through veins instead of arteries

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blisters


fluid filled pocket between epidermis and dermis

stress on skin

44

lines of cleavage


formed by uniform alignment of collagen and elastic fibers

45

stretch mark


tearing of dermis due to rapid stretch

pregnancy, fat, muscle build

46

decubitus ulcers (bed sores)


blood supply due to weight of body restricted, leads to ischemia, then necrosis

bacterial infections result

 

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associated dangers of burns


dehydration

electrolyte imbalance

circulatory shock

infection

48

rule of nines


head - 9

arms - 9+9=18

body  - 36

legs - 18 + 18 = 36

pubic - 1

anterior and posterior

49

severity of burns


1st - redness and swelling; epidermis only

2nd - blistering; epidermis and part of dermis

3rd - destruction;  death of tissue through entire dermis

50

skin cancer types

basal cell carcinoma

squamos cell carcinoma

 

51

basal cell carcinoma


least malignant

arises from stratum basale cells that go on to invade underlying dermis and hypodermis

goes down instead of up

shiny dome shaped nodule found in sun exposed areas

slow growing and metastizes seldom

 

52

squamos cell carcinoma

usually sun induced

arises from stratum spinosum

scaly reddened papule common on head and hands

grow rapidly and will metastazise if not removed

can occur body wide (wherever there is pigment)

 

53

ABCD rule of cancer detection


asymmetry

irregular border (jagged vs smooth)

color; different colors same spot

diameter >6 mm means trouble