Chapter 01: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 01: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Deck (37)
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1
Q
Number of naturally occurring elements
A
91
2
Q
Properties of solids
A
Definite shape
Definite volume
Incompressible
Particles close very together
Particles locked in place
3
Q
Types of solids (2)
A
Crystalline and amorphous
4
Q
Crystalline solids
A
Have regular, repeating, 3D internal geometric patterns
5
Q
Amorphous solids
A
No regular, internal geometric patterns
6
Q
Properties of a liquid
A
Indefinite shape
Definite volume
Incompressible, essentially
Particles close together
Particles can move freely
7
Q
Properties of a gas
A
Indefinite shape
Indefinite volume
Compressible
Particles far apart
Particles can move freely AND randomly
8
Q
Physical changes
A
Do not ALTER COMPOSITION or IDENTITY of a substance
9
Q
Chemical changes
A
DO ALTER COMPOSITION or IDENTITY of substance(s)
10
Q
Physical properties
A
Inherent characteristics, determined WITHOUT altering composition

Color, taste, odor, state (of matter), density, melting point, boiling point
11
Q
Chemical properties
A
Describes substance's ability to either
(a) undergo a reaction with another substance
(b) decompose

Flammability, corrosiveness, acidity, toxicity
12
Q
Energy
A
Matter's capacity to do work
13
Q
Work
A
Force's action through a distance
14
Q
Potential energy
A
Stored energy
15
Q
Kinetic energy
A
Matter's energy due to its position
16
Q
Law of conservation of energy
A
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy is always conserved during ANY change
17
Q
Extensive properties
A
Depends upon quantity of matter

Mass, length, volume
18
Q
Intensive properties
A
INtensive = INdependent of quantity of matter

Density, temperature, color
19
Q
SI base units
A
meter
kilogram
second
kelvin
mole
20
Q
Matter
A
Anything that occupies space and has mass
21
Q
Mass
A
Measure of quantity of matter, measured on balance
22
Q
Weight
A
Gravity's force exerted on an object
23
Q
Volume
A
Amount of space occupied by matter (cubic measurement)
24
Q
Density
A
Ratio of mass to volume
*Dependent upon temperature! (Always note temperature with density, if available.)

SI standard: kg/m^3
25
Q
Thermal energy
A
Form of energy; motion of small particles of matter; a type of kinetic energy (arises from motion of atoms)
26
Q
Termperature
A
INTENSITY measurement of thermal energy
27
Q
Heat
A
FLOW of energy due to temperature difference
28
Q
K = Celsius + ?
A
K = Celsius + 273.15
29
Q
Celsius = Fahrenheit...?
A
Celsius = (F - 32) / 1.8
30
Q
Uncertainty
A
Exists in last digit of every measurement, because this digit is estimated
31
Q
Exact numbers
A
Infinite number of significant figures

Counted numbers
32
Q
Accuracy
A
How close measured value is to true value
33
Q
Precision
A
How close a set of measured values are to each other
34
Q
Random error
A
Error that has equal probability of being too high/too low
35
Q
Systematic error
A
Error that trends toward EITHER being too high OR too low
36
Q
Derived unit
A
Combination of other units

e.g. m/s (meters per second)
37
Q
Glucose
A
C6H12O6