Chapter 02: Atoms and Elements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 02: Atoms and Elements Deck (45)
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1

Law of conservation of mass

Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

Mass of reactants = mass of products

2

Law of definite proportions

All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements

Water is always H20

3

Law of multiple proportions

Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios, producing various compounds

4

Subatomic particles

Election (e-) - negative charge, mass is minute

Proton (p) - positive charge, mass = 1840x an electron's

Neutron (n) - neutral particle, GREATEST MASS

5

Cathode rays

Beam of particles, negatively charged

6

Cathode

Negatively charged electrode

7

Anode

Positively charged electrode

8

Radioactivity

Spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation

9

Radioactive element

Spontaneously emits radiation

10

Alpha particles

Positively charged particles

11

Beta particles

Negatively charged particles

12

Gamma rays

Neutral charge, high-energy radiation

13

Nuclear theory

Nucleus = most of atom's mass and all of its positive charge

Empty space = most of the atom

# of protons = # of electrons, so atoms are neutral

14

Periodic table

Elements are in order of increasing atomic number

Row = period
Column = group/family

15

Group 1A

Alkali metals

16

Group 2A

Alkaline earth metals

17

Groups XB

Transition metals

18

Groups XB - inserted rows

Inner transition metals

19

Group 7A

Halogens

20

Group 8A

Noble/inert gases

21

Atomic number

Z
Number of protons

22

Mass number

A
Number of protons + neutrons

23

Chemical symbol

X
Chemical abbreviation

24

X-A

Chemical-Mass #

25

Molecule

2+ atoms in DEFINITE arrangement, held together by chemical forces

26

Diatomic molecule

2-atom molecule

27

Diatomic molecules in nature (7)

Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
Fluorine (F)
Oxygen (O)
Iodine (I)
Chlorine (Cl)
Bromine (Br)

H + N through F + F down to I

"Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer"

28

Polyatomic molecule

>2 atom molecule

29

Polyatomic molecules in nature

Phosphorus (P4)
Sulfur (S4)
Selenium (Se4)
(Oxygen (O3))

(remaining 3 Other Nonmetals angled in diatomic molecules N, O, F, Cl, Br

30

Cation

Positively charged ion