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Flashcards in CHE Final Exam Deck (66):
1

Alpha and beta particles

Positively and negatively charged particles, respectively

2

Gamma rays

Neutral charge, high-energy radiation

3

Nuclear theory

Supported by Rutherford's experiment:

nucleus = most of atom's mass w/protons & neutrons

empty space = most of atom's space w/electrons

4

Polyatomic molecules in nature

P4
S4
Se4
O3

5

Noble metals

Ag, Pt, Au

6

Transition metals with predictable charge (3)

Ag (1B = 1+)
Zn (2B = 2+)
Cd (2B = 2+)

7

1 prefix (HC)

meth-

8

2 prefix (HC)

eth-

9

3 prefix (HC)

prop-

10

4 prefix (HC)

but-

11

HC suffixes (single, double, & triple bonds)

-ane, -ene, -yne

12

Alkanes

Hydrocarbons with only single bonds (-anes)

13

Percent yield

% yield = ( actual / theoretical ) * 100%

*NOT PERCENT ERROR!

14

Dilution formula

M1V1 = M2V2

M = molarity, V = volume (liters)

15

Dissociation

Ions of a salt separate when dissolved

16

Ionization

Process of ion formation in solution

(acids, bases)

17

Arrhenius acids & bases

Acids produce H+ (H3O+) in water

Bases produce OH- in water

18

Brønsted acids & bases

Acid = proton donor

Base = proton acceptor

19

Monoprotic, diprotic, and tripotic acids

Each unit of acid yields one, two, and H+ ion(s) respectively

20

Neutralization reaction result

salt + water + heat

21

Gas-evolving reactions & compounds (4)

Acid + salt --> salt + gas + water

Sulfides

Bicarbonates

Bisulfites

Ammonium

22

Oxidation half-reaction

Shows loss of electrons (OIL)

23

Reduction half-reaction

Shows the gain of electrons (RIG)

24

Oxidizing agents

Are reduced (RIG)

25

Reduction agents

Are oxidized (OIL)

26

Disproportionation reaction

Same element is simultaneously oxidized & reduced

27

Modified dilution equation

MacidVacid(# of H+) = MbaseVbase(# of OH-)

28

Pressure unit conversion

760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1 atm = 101,325 Pa

29

Molar mass of gas formula

M = dRT/P

molar mass = (density) * R * (Kelvin) / (atm)

 

 

D = PM/RT
= pressure * molar mass / R * temp

30

Average KE

Constant tempterature: gases have same average KE

31

Root mean square velocity

urms = (3RT/M)1/2

R = J/mol K
T = Kelvin
M = kg/mol

32

Graham's law of effusion

ra/rb = (Mb/Ma)1/2

 

 

33

Real gases

Behavior differse at high pressure/low temperature

34

Energy unit conversion (4 equalities)

1 J = 1 kg*m2/s2

1 cal = 4.184 J

1 Cal = 1kcal

1 L*atm = 101.3 J

35

Internal energy & change in internal energy

E (internal energy) = KE + PE

ΔE = Eproducts - Ereactants

ΔE = q + w

*+w work done ON system, -w work done BY system

ΔEsystem = -ΔEsurroundings

36

Pressure-volume work

w = -PΔV

work = negative of external pressure * change in volume

37

Enthalpy/change in enthalpy formula

Enthalpy = H

H = E + PV
(internal energy + pressure*volume)

ΔH = ΔE + PΔV

ΔH = Hproducts - Hreactants

38

Heat capacity

q = C * Δt

Amount of heat to raise temperature by 1°C

C = J/°C or J/K

System absorbs heat = temperature increasse

39

Specific heat capacity

q = m * Cs * Δt

Measure of substance's ability to absorb heat/amount of heat required to raise 1 g of substance by 1°C

40

Bomb calorimeter

Constant-volume calorimetry

ΔErxn = qv = qrxn = -qcal

qcal = Ccal * ΔT = -qrxn 

41

Coffee-cup calorimetry

Constant-pressure calorimetry

ΔHrxn = qp = qrxn = -qsoln

qsoln = msoln * Cs, soln * ΔT = -qrxn

42

Standard enthalpy of formation

ΔHf°

Heat change when one mole is formed from elements at 1 atm

Most stable = 0

Stable liquids: Hg, Br

Stable gases: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, noble gases

Graphite is stable, diamond is not

S8 rhombic is stable

43

Standard enthalpy of a reaction

The enthalpy of a reaction carried out at 1 atm

ΔHrxn° = ΣnproductsΔHf° - ΣnreactantsΔHf°

44

Hess' law

ΔHrxn° = ΔH1° + ΔH2°

45

Frequency formula

v = c / λ

46

Electromagnetic spectrum

Low energy to high:

radio
microwave
infared
visible light
ultraviolet
X-ray
gamma ray

47

Photoelectric effect

Many metals emit electrons when light shines on surface

48

Number of photons formula

Number of photons = Epulse / Ephoton

*Ephoton = hc/λ

49

Energy & frequency combined formula

v = c / λ

E = hv

E = hc/λ

50

Wavelength formula

λ = h/mv

Planck's constant / mass * velocity

51

Energy of electron orbital change formula

ΔEH atom = -R (1/n2final - 1/n2initial)

R = Joules

52

1 Hz = ? s-1

1 Hz = 1 s-1

53

Pauli exclusion principle

No two electrons can have same four quantum numbers

Orbital = 2 electrons max

54

Aufbau principle

Lower energy orbitals fill before higher energy orbitals to minimize energy of atom

55

Hund's rule

Electrons first occupy orbitals of equal energy singly with parallel spins

56

Transition elements with irregular electron configurations (10)

1. Cr (Chromium) 24
2. Cu (Copper) 29
3. Nb (Niobium) 41
4. Mo (Molybdenur) 42
5. Ru (Rutherium) 44
6. Rh (Rhodium) 45
7. Pd (Palladium) 46
8. Ag (Silver) 47
9. Pt (Platinum) 78
10. Au (Gold) 79

57

Van der Waals radius

Nonbonding radius of an atom

58

Cation v. anion radius size

Cations < anions

Except Rb+ and Cs+ are larger than F- and O2-

59

Periodic trends in first ionization energy

The larger the Zeff, the more energy it takes to remove it.
*IE1 increases to the right
**Except: Group 2A to 3A & Group 5A to 6A

The farther the electron is from the nucleus, the less energy it takes to remove it
*IE1 decreases toward the bottom

60

Electron affinity

X (g) + e- → X- (g) + EA

The energy released (-kJ/mol) when a neutral gaseous atom gains an electron

The more energy released when electron is gained, the more negative the EA (-kJ/mol)

*INCREASES TO THE RIGHT

61

Diagonal relationship

1. Li & Mg
2. Be & Al (Al is a metal like 2A)
3. B & Si (metalloids)

Similar because of charge density (ion charge / volume)

62

Properties of oxides across a period (3)

1. Metals/Groups 1A/2A form basic oxides
2. Nonmetals form acidic oxides
3. Al form amphoteric oxides (both basic/acidic)

63

Formal charge (4)

Charge an atom would have if all bonding electrons were shared equally

FC of an atom = Valence e- - nonbonding e- - (1/2)(bonding e-)

1. Sum of all formal charges in neutral molecule = 0
2. Sum of all formal charges in ion = ion charge
3. Small (or zero) formal charges on individual atoms are better than large ones
4. When formal charge cannot be avoided, negative formal charge should reside on the most electronegative atom

64

The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

ln P2/P1 = (-ΔHvap/R) (1/T2-T1)

R = 8.314 J/mol K

T = in Kelvin

65

Equation for heat involved in completion of a phase change

q = nΔHtransition

heat = # of mols * heat of [transition]

66

Equation for heat involved in temperature change 

q = (m) (Cs) (ΔT)