Chapter 01: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 01: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Deck (37):
1

Number of naturally occurring elements

91

2

Properties of solids

Definite shape
Definite volume
Incompressible
Particles close very together
Particles locked in place

3

Types of solids (2)

Crystalline and amorphous

4

Crystalline solids

Have regular, repeating, 3D internal geometric patterns

5

Amorphous solids

No regular, internal geometric patterns

6

Properties of a liquid

Indefinite shape
Definite volume
Incompressible, essentially
Particles close together
Particles can move freely

7

Properties of a gas

Indefinite shape
Indefinite volume
Compressible
Particles far apart
Particles can move freely AND randomly

8

Physical changes

Do not ALTER COMPOSITION or IDENTITY of a substance

9

Chemical changes

DO ALTER COMPOSITION or IDENTITY of substance(s)

10

Physical properties

Inherent characteristics, determined WITHOUT altering composition

Color, taste, odor, state (of matter), density, melting point, boiling point

11

Chemical properties

Describes substance's ability to either
(a) undergo a reaction with another substance
(b) decompose

Flammability, corrosiveness, acidity, toxicity

12

Energy

Matter's capacity to do work

13

Work

Force's action through a distance

14

Potential energy

Stored energy

15

Kinetic energy

Matter's energy due to its position

16

Law of conservation of energy

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy is always conserved during ANY change

17

Extensive properties

Depends upon quantity of matter

Mass, length, volume

18

Intensive properties

INtensive = INdependent of quantity of matter

Density, temperature, color

19

SI base units

meter
kilogram
second
kelvin
mole

20

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

21

Mass

Measure of quantity of matter, measured on balance

22

Weight

Gravity's force exerted on an object

23

Volume

Amount of space occupied by matter (cubic measurement)

24

Density

Ratio of mass to volume
*Dependent upon temperature! (Always note temperature with density, if available.)

SI standard: kg/m^3

25

Thermal energy

Form of energy; motion of small particles of matter; a type of kinetic energy (arises from motion of atoms)

26

Termperature

INTENSITY measurement of thermal energy

27

Heat

FLOW of energy due to temperature difference

28

K = Celsius + ?

K = Celsius + 273.15

29

Celsius = Fahrenheit...?

Celsius = (F - 32) / 1.8

30

Uncertainty

Exists in last digit of every measurement, because this digit is estimated

31

Exact numbers

Infinite number of significant figures

Counted numbers

32

Accuracy

How close measured value is to true value

33

Precision

How close a set of measured values are to each other

34

Random error

Error that has equal probability of being too high/too low

35

Systematic error

Error that trends toward EITHER being too high OR too low

36

Derived unit

Combination of other units

e.g. m/s (meters per second)

37

Glucose

C6H12O6